VEGETOS: An International Journal of Plant Research & Biotechnology
(Society For Plant Research)

Research Articles


Volume: 34, Issue: 2, June 2021

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Views: 117

Doi: 10.1007/s42535-021-00217-x
Doi Link:
First Page: 390
Last Page: 403
Published: 06 May, 2021

Human health risk assessment of essential and non-essential metals in vegetables (Jute Mallow, Onions, Celosia, Spinach and Tomatoes) from Ogun, Lagos and Oyo states, southwestern Nigeria


Vegetables are important sources of essential minerals and vitamins required for healthy living. However, contamination of vegetables with inorganic and organic substances may pose severe or irreversible health risk. The present study assessed the health risk of metals in vegetables from three states in southwestern Nigeria. A total of 180 vegetable samples (Jute Mallow, Onions, Celosia, Spinach and Tomatoes) were collected and analyzed for essential {copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn)}, and nonessential {cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)} metals using the standard method. The health risk assessment was evaluated for hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR). Results showed the highest concentrations of Fe in vegetable samples ranging from 4.9 mg kg−1 in jute mallow from Ogun to 558 mg kg−1 in spinach from Lagos. The spinach samples were more enriched in Fe and Zn than any other vegetables. The abundance pattern of metals in vegetables followed the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd. The health risk assessment study revealed HQ and HI of metals greater than 1.0 in many vegetable samples indicating non-carcinogenic adverse health effects. The average CR values for Cd and Ni in vegetables were generally higher than the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10–4, while the mean CR data for Pb were greater than the priority limit of 1.0 × 10–6. These CR values suggested possible cancer development through consumption of vegetables from the study area.



Vegetables, Health effects, Cancer, Metals, Risk


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Acknowledgements :

The authors acknowledge the laboratory assistance of Mrs. E.O. Sorinola of the Department of Environmental Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, and Mr. S.A. Omosuli of the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan. The anonymous reviewers are kindly acknowledged for their constructive criticism.

Author Information:

Adewale M. Taiwo
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Osayande J. Avan
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Kofoworola A. Olatunde
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Karimat L. Abdullahi
Department of Chemistry, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria

Patricia K. Ogunkoya
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Ebunoluwa R. Lawal
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Al-Amin Adenekan
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta, Nigeria

, Osayande J. Avan
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Abibat O. Jimoh
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Gbolahan Oladimeji
Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta, Nigeria

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