VEGETOS: An International Journal of Plant Research & Biotechnology
(Society For Plant Research)

Research Articles


Volume: 34, Issue: 3, September 2021

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Views: 238

Doi: 10.1007/s42535-021-00244-8
Doi Link:
First Page: 606
Last Page: 618
Published: 25 June, 2021

Evaluation of phytochemical components, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ricinus communis leaf extracts


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal particles with nanoscale size ranging from 1 to 100 nm. Due to their small size, they can be used in different fields such as medicine, environmental protection, drug delivery, gene therapy, food processing etc. As necessary phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins and triterpenes were present in Ricinus communis leaf, its aqueous extract was used in the present study to biosynthesize AgNPs. A colour change from colourless to golden yellow, and then to brown colour after 100 min incubation of “leaf extract plus AgNO3 reaction mixture” in the dark confirmed the formation of AgNPs. Absorption spectrum of AgNPs was studied between 400 and 700 nm and AgNPs were found to have absorption maximum at 440 nm. Binding of phenolic and flavonoids compounds with silver was confirmed by measuring their content in AgNPs. The antioxidant potential of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Antioxidant assay showed that AgNPs had significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (60.54%) than the aqueous leaf extract (44.49%) of R. communis at P < 0.05. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs against a Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria was evaluated by cup-plate agar diffusion method. R. communis leaf extract synthesized AgNPs showed good antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results suggest that R. communis leaf extract can be used effectively in the production of potential antioxidant and antibacterial AgNPs.



Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Phytochemicals, n Ricinus communisn , Silver nanoparticles


Abdel-Aziz MS, Shaheen MS, El-Nekeety AA, Abdel-Wahhab MA (2014) Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Chenopodium murale leaf extract. J Saudi Chem Soc 18(4):356–363.

Ajitha B, Ashok Kumar Reddy Y, Reddy PS (2014) Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 121:164–172.

Alemaw G (2016) Diversity of castor (Ricinus communis L.) in Ethiopia. Ethiop J Agric Sci 26(2):57–67

Ankanna S, Prasad TNVKV, Elumalai E, Savithramma N (2010) Production of biogenic silver nanoparticles using Boswellia ovalifoliolata stem bark. Dig J Nanomater Biostructures 5(2):369–372

Asharani P, Xinyi N, Hande MP, Valiyaveettil S (2010) DNA damage and p53-mediated growth arrest in human cells treated with platinum nanoparticles. Nanomedicine 5(1):51–64.

Atey G/M (2008) Local use of spices, condiments and non-edible oil crops in some selected woredas in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. M.Sc. Biology (Dryland Biodiversity) thesis, School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University

Awika JM, Rooney LW, Wu X, Prior RL, Cisneros-Zevallos L (2003) Screening methods to measure antioxidant activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sorghum products. J Agric Food Chem 51(23):6657–6662.

Balaban RS, Nemoto S, Finkel T (2005) Mitochondria, oxidants, and aging. Cell 120(4):483–495.

Balemie K, Kelbessa E, Asfaw Z (2004) Indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and threats in Fentalle Area, Eastern Shewa, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Biol Sci 3:37–58

Bhakya S, Muthukrishnan S, Sukumaran M, Muthukumar M (2015) Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Appl Nanosci 6(5):755–766.

Bhati-Kushwaha H, Malik CP (2013) Biopotential of Verbesina encelioides (stem and leaf powders) in silver nanoparticle fabrication. Turk J Biol 37:645–654.

Chang S-T, Wu J-H, Wang S-Y, Kang P-L, Yang N-S, Shyur L-F (2001) Antioxidant activity of extracts from Acacia confuse bark and heartwood. J Agric Food Chem 49(7):3420–3424.

Dipankar C, Murugan S (2012) The green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Iresine herbstii leaf aqueous extracts. Colloids Surf B 98:112–119.

Dobrucka R, Długaszewska J (2015) Antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized by using water extract of Arnicae anthodium. Indian J Microbiol 55(2):168–174.

Fiskin K, Ozkan A, Ayhan AG (2006) Investigation of protective effects of selenium and vitamin E against DNA oxidation, membrane damage and alteration of COMT metabolism in smoke-exposed male mice (Mus musculus, Balb/c). Acta Biol Hung 57(4):403–413.

Gao X, Yourick JJ, Topping VD, Black T, Olejnik N, Keltner Z, Sprando RL (2015) Toxicogenomic study in rat thymus of F1 generation offspring following maternal exposure to silver ion. Toxicol Rep 2:341–350.

Gebru H, Taddesse A, Kaushal J, Yadav OP (2013) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity. J Surf Sci Technol 29(1–2):47–66

Ghosh S, Tiwari SS, Srivastava S, Sharma AK, Kumar S, Ray DD, Rawat AKS (2013) Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Vet Parasitol 192(1–3):259–267.

Govindaraju K, Tamilselvan S, Kiruthiga V, Singaravelu G (2010) Biogenic silver nanoparticles by Solanum torvum and their promising antimicrobial activity. J Biopestic 3(1):394–399

Gul A, Fozia SA, Ahmad I, Khattak B, Ahmad M, Ullah R, Bari A, Ali SS, Alobaid A, Asmari MM, Mahmood HM (2021) Green synthesis, characterization, enzyme inhibition, antimicrobial potential, and cytotoxic activity of plant mediated silver nanoparticle using Ricinus communis leaf and root extracts. Biomolecules 11:206.

Hoareau L, DaSilva EJ (1999) Medicinal plants: a re-emerging health aid. Electron J Biotechnol.

Ibraheem O, Rotdelmwa M (2014) Evaluation of alkaloids and cardiac glycosides contents of Ricinus communis linn. (castor) whole plant parts and determination of their biological properties. Int J Toxicol Pharmacol Res 6(3):34–42

Ibrahim HMM (2015) Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using banana peel extract and their antimicrobial activity against representative microorganisms. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 8(3):265–275.

Ilavarasan R, Mallika M, Venkataraman S (2006) Anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of Ricinus communis root extract. J Ethnopharmacol 103(3):478–480.

Jeyaseelan EC, Jashothan PTJ (2012) In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2(9):717–721.

Kamaraj C, Rajakumar G, Rahuman AA, Velayutham K, Bagavan A, Zahir AA, Elango G (2011) Feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Manilkara zapota leaf extract against the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Parasitol Res 111(6):2439–2448.

Kamat PV (2002) Photophysical, photochemical and photocatalytic aspects of metal nanoparticles. J Phys Chem B 106(32):7729–7744.

Klueh U, Wagner V, Kelly S, Johnson A, Bryers JD (2000) Efficacy of silver-coated fabric to prevent bacterial colonization and subsequent device-based biofilm formation. J Biomed Mater Res 53(6):621–631.;2-q

Lala NL, Ramaseshan R, Bojun L, Sundarrajan S, Barhate RS, Ying-jun L, Ramakrishna S (2007) Fabrication of nanofibers with antimicrobial functionality used as filters: protection against bacterial contaminants. Biotechnol Bioeng 97(6):1357–1365.

Leela A, Vivekanandan M (2008) Tapping the unexploited plant resources for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Afr J Biotechnol 7(17):3162–3165

Liyana-Pathirana CM, Shahidi F (2005) Antioxidant activity of commercial soft and hard wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) as affected by gastric pH conditions. J Agric Food Chem 53(7):2433–2440.

Lok C-N, Ho C-M, Chen R, He Q-Y, Yu W-Y, Sun H, Tam PK-H, Chiu J-F, Che C-M (2006) Proteomic analysis of the mode of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. J Proteome Res 5(4):916–924.

Lomash V, Parihar SK, Jain NK, Katiyar AK (2010) Effect of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin. Cell Mol Biol 56:1239–1251

Magnusson MH, Deppert K, Malm J-O, Bovin J-O, Samuelson L (1999) Size-selected gold nanoparticles by aerosol technology. Nanostruct Mater 12(1–4):45–48.

Mani U, Dhanasingh S, Arunachalam R, Paul E, Shanmugam P, Rose C, Mandal AB (2013) A simple and green method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ricinus communis leaf extract. Prog Nanotechnol Nanomater 2(1):21–25

Marambio-Jones C, Hoek EMV (2010) A review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials and potential implications for human health and the environment. J Nanoparticle Res 12(5):1531–1551.

Mathew TV, Kuriakose S (2013) Studies on the antimicrobial properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles stabilized by bovine serum albumin. Colloids Surf B 101:14–18.

Moteriya P, Chanda S (2014) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using flower extract of Cassia roxburghii DC and its synergistic antibacterial efficacy. Sci Iran 21(6):2499–2507

Moteriya P, Padalia H, Chanda S (2014) Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Psidium guajava L. leaf extract and antibacterial activity against some pathogenic microorganisms. J Pharm Res 8(11):1579–1585

Moteriya P, Padalia H, Chanda S (2017) Characterization, synergistic antibacterial and free radical scavenging efficacy of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Cassia roxburghii leaf extract. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 15(2):505–513.

Mujeeb F, Bajpai P, Pathak N (2014) Phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial activity, and determination of bioactive components from leaves of Aegle marmelos. BioMed Res Int 2014:1–11.

Narayanan R, El-Sayed MA (2004) Shape-dependent catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles in colloidal solution. Nano Lett 4(7):1343–1348.

Nie Z, Liu KJ, Zhong C-J, Wang L-F, Yang Y, Tian Q, Liu Y (2007) Enhanced radical scavenging activity by antioxidant-functionalized gold nanoparticles: a novel inspiration for development of new artificial antioxidants. Free Radic Biol Med 43(9):1243–1254.

Noginov MA, Zhu G, Bahoura M, Adegoke J, Small C, Ritzo BA, Drachev VP, Shalaev VM (2006) The effect of gain and absorption on surface plasmons in metal nanoparticles. Appl Phys B 86(3):455–460.

Ojha S, Sett A, Bora U (2017) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Ricinus communis var. carmencita leaf extract and its antibacterial study. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 8:035009

Oyewole OI, Owoseni AA, Faboro EO (2010) Studies on medicinal and toxicological properties of Cajanus cajan, Ricinus communis and Thymus vulgaris leaf extracts. J Med Plants Res 4(19):2004–2006.

Ozkan A, Fiskin K, Ayhan A (2007) Effect of vitamin E and selenium on antioxidant enzymes in brain, kidney and liver of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Biologia 62(3):360–364.

Phull A-R, Abbas Q, Ali A, Raza H, Kim SJ, Zia M, Haq I (2016) Antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from crude extract of Bergenia ciliata. Future J Pharm Sci 2(1):31–36.

Pietta P-G (2000) Flavonoids as antioxidants. J Nat Prod 63(7):1035–1042.

Prince ES, Parameswari P, Khan RM (2011) Protective effect of Ricinus communis leaves extract on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Iran J Pharm Sci 7(4):269–278

Ramos-López MA, Pérez GS, Rodríguez-Hernández C, Guevara-Fefer P, Zavala-Sánchez MA (2010) Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Afr J Biotechnol 9(9):1359–1365

Raut RW, Lakkakula JR, Kolekar NS, Mendhulkar VD, Kashid SB (2009) Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticle using Gliricidia sepium (Jacq). Curr Nanosci 5(1):117–122.

Raut RW, Kolekar NS, Lakkakula JR, Mendhulkar VD, Kashid SB (2010) Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using dried leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre. NanoMicro Lett 2(2):106–113.

Raveendran P, Fu J, Wallen SL (2003) Completely “green” synthesis and stabilization of metal nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 125(46):13940–13941.

Reddy NJ, Nagoor Vali D, Rani M, Rani SS (2014) Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit. Mater Sci Eng C 34:115–122.

Rojas-Barros P, de Haro A, Muñoz J, Fernández-Martínez JM (2004) Isolation of a natural mutant in castor with high oleic/low ricinoleic acid content in the oil. Crop Sci 44(1):76.

Saikia JP, Paul S, Konwar BK, Samdarshi SK (2010) Nickel oxide nanoparticles: a novel antioxidant. Colloids Surf B 78(1):146–148.

Salem ANB, Zyed R, Ali LM, Nidhal S, Souad S, Mahjoub A (2012) Cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles synthesized from Salvia officinalis L. and Ricinus communis aqueous extracts against vero cell line and evaluation of their antioxidant activities. Afr J Biotechnol 11(52):11530–11534

Sandhyakumary K, Bobby RG, Indira M (2003) Antifertility effects of Ricinus communis (Linn) on rats. Phytother Res 17(5):508–511.

Sathyavathi R, Krishna MBM, Rao DN (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its application to optical limiting. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 11(3):2031–2035.

Shokeen P, Anand P, Murali YK, Tandon V (2008) Antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis and its purified fractions. Food Chem Toxicol 46(11):3458–3466.

Singh PP, Ambika CSMS (2009) Activity guided isolation of antioxidants from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. Food Chem 114(3):1069–1072.

Singh A, Mittal S, Shrivastav R, Dass S, Srivastava JN (2012) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ricinus communis L. leaf extract and its antibacterial activity. Dig J Nanomater Biostructures 7(3):1157–1163

Sivaraman SK, Elango I, Kumar S, Santhanam V (2009) A green protocol for room temperature synthesis of silver nanoparticles in seconds. Curr Sci 97(7):1055–1059

Soni N, Dhiman RC (2017) Phytochemical, anti-oxidant, larvicidal, and antimicrobial activities of castor (Ricinus communis) synthesized silver nanoparticles. Chin Herb Med 9(3):289–294

Srinivasan D, Nathan S, Suresh T, Lakshmana Perumalsamy P (2001) Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 74(3):217–220.

Sundarrajan S, Chandrasekaran AR, Ramakrishna S (2010) An update on nanomaterials-based textiles for protection and decontamination. J Am Ceram Soc 93(12):3955–3975.

Tolosa E (2007) Use and conservation of traditional medicinal plants by indigenous people in Gimbi Woreda, Western Wellega, Ethiopia. M.Sc. Biology (Botanical Science) thesis, Addis Ababa University

Tripathi A, Chandrasekaran N, Raichur AM, Mukherjee A (2009) Antibacterial applications of silver nanoparticles synthesized by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves. J Biomed Nanotechnol 5(1):93–98.

Varshney R, Mishra AN, Bhadauria S, Gaur MS (2009) A novel microbial route to synthesize silver nanoparticles using fungus Hormoconis resinae. Dig J Nanomater Biostructures 4(2):349–355

Wafa G, Amadou D, Larbi KM, Héla EFO (2014) Larvicidal activity, phytochemical composition, and antioxidant properties of different parts of five populations of Ricinus communis L. Ind Crops Prod 56:43–51.

Wang X, Li Y (2007) Monodisperse nanocrystals: general synthesis, assembly, and their applications. Chem Commun 28:2901.

Waris M, Nasir S, Abbas S, Azeem M, Ahmad B, Khan NA, Hussain B, Al-Ghanim KA, Al-Misned F, Mulahim N, Mahboob S (2020a) Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of Ricinus communis (Castor) and synthesized green silver nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti L. Saudi J Biol Sci 27:2403–2409

Waris M, Nasir S, Rasule A, Yousaf I (2020b) Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of Ricinus communis (Castor) plant extract and synthesized green silver nanoparticles against Aedes albopictus. J ArthropodBorne Dis 14(2):162–172

Williamson EM (2002) Major herbs of ayurveda, 1st edn. Dabur Research Foundation and Dabur Ayurvet Limited, Churchill Livingstone

Wu B, Heidelberg A, Boland JJ (2005) Mechanical properties of ultrahigh-strength gold nanowires. Nat Mater 4(7):525–529.

Yineger H, Yewhalaw D, Teketay D (2008) Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge and practice of the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine 4(1):11.

Acknowledgements :

Author Information:

Abrham Mintiwab
Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Science, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia

Pdf Download