VEGETOS: An International Journal of Plant Research & Biotechnology
(Society For Plant Research)

Research Articles


Volume: 34, Issue: 3, September 2021

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Views: 62

Doi: 10.1007/s42535-021-00240-y
Doi Link:
First Page: 568
Last Page: 580
Published: 02 July, 2021

Fluoride-induced toxicity is ameliorated in a susceptible indica rice cultivar by exogenous application of the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside


The current study elucidated the roles of sodium nitroprusside (SNP: a nitric oxide donor) in mitigating fluoride-induced damages in the susceptible indica rice cultivar, IR-64. Bioaccumulation of fluoride triggered chlorosis, membrane damage, oxidative stress, methylglyoxal production and inhibition of the ascorbate–glutathione (AsA–GSH) cycle. This led to low accumulation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and high accumulation of AsA due to suppressed ascorbic acid oxidase activity. Exogenous treatment with SNP enhanced the accumulation of proline (supported by induced expression of the gene encoding the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolics), and activated the AsA–GSH cycle, along with other enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase during fluoride stress. The cytotoxic methylglyoxal was reduced due to induced glyoxalase II expression. SNP treatment also induced the genes encoding the enzymes of the AsA–GSH cycle. A high GSH redox state during fluoride stress enabled the SNP-treated seedlings to maintain high chlorophyll, relative water content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power along with low electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, H2O2 level and lipoxygenase activity. SNP-treated plants accumulated lower AsA during stress due to its efficient utilization in the AsA–GSH cycle and also degradation by ascorbic acid oxidase. Overall, our investigation illustrated the efficacy of SNP in triggering NO production and activating the defence machinery for ameliorating fluoride-induced injuries in rice.



Sodium nitroprusside, Nitric oxide, Fluoride stress, Rice, Antioxidants, Ascorbate–glutathione cycle


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Acknowledgements :

Financial assistance from Science and Engineering Research Board, Government of India through the Grant [EMR/2016/004799] and Department of Higher Education, Science and Technology and Biotechnology, Government of West Bengal, through the Grant [264(Sanc.)/ST/P/S&T/1G-80/2017] to Dr. Aryadeep Roychoudhury is gratefully acknowledged. Mr. Aditya Banerjee is thankful to University Grants Commission, Government of India for providing Senior Research Fellowship in course of this work.

Author Information:

Aditya Banerjee
Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Kolkata, India

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