Spatial variation in allelopathic inhibition by Ageratina adenophora on growth and yield of two traditional millet crops

, , ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00353-y
First Page: 663
Last Page: 673
Views: 474

Keywords: Allelopathy, Growth, Harvest index, Inhibition, Millets, Yield


This study investigated the effects of Ageratina adenophora Sprengel (King and Robinson) on the growth and grain yield of two millet crops viz. finger millet (Eleusine coracana) along with the red and white variety of barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea). Plants of selected millet crops growing at three distances (0, 1 and 5 m) from A. adenophora were harvested at mature stage and analysed for plant height, dry mass and grain yield. Significant inhibitory effects were recorded on all measured variables including shoot and root length and dry mass, panicle size and grain yield. In general, red barnyard millet was found to be more sensitive to allelopathic effects of A. adenophora as compared to white barnyard and finger millet. Distance from A. adenophora strongly affected the allelopathic effects; generally decreasing with increasing distance. Grain yield was the most inhibited variable for both the barnyard varieties, and reductions of 72 and 83% were observed in white and red barnyard millet, respectively. While finger millet showed maximum inhibition in plant biomass (18%). Harvest index showed maximum inhibition (57%) in red barnyard followed by white barnyard (15%) millet while finger millet remained unaffected. This study concluded that both finger and barnyard millet are sensitive to A. adenophora invasion and observed growth reductions in finger and barnyard millet may be due to the allelochemicals present in the A. adenophora plants.

Allelopathy, Growth, Harvest index, Inhibition, Millets, Yield

*Pdf Download

(*Only SPR Members can download pdf file; #Open Access;)



Amadou I, Mahamadou E, Le GW (2013) Millets: Nutritional composition, some health benefits and processing—a Review. Emir J Food Agric 25(7):501–508.

Annapurna C, Singh JS (2003) Phenotypic plasticity and plant invasiveness: case study of congress grass. Curr Sci 85:197–201

Bargali SS (1994) Forest floor development in Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. plantations in a part of Central Himalayan tarai belt. Range Manag Agrofor 15(1):61–68

Bargali SS (1996) Weight loss and nitrogen release in decomposing wood litter in an age series of eucalypt plantation. Soil Biol Biochem 28:699–702

Bargali SS, Singh RP, Joshi M (1993a) Changes in soil characteristics in eucalypt plantations replacing natural broad leaved forests. J Veg Sci 4:25–28.

Bargali SS, Singh SP, Singh RP (1993b) Pattern of weight loss and nutrient release in decomposing leaf litter in an age series of eucalypt plantations. Soil Biol Biochem 25:1731–1738

Bhardwaj S, Kapoor KS, Singh HP (2014) Studies on allelopathic effects of Ageratina adenophora Sprengel (King and Robinson) on some weed plants growing in forest ecosystem. Int J Theor Appl Sci 6(2):1–6

Cao Z, Wang X, Tu J (2011) Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng by different treatment methods on seed germination of Pinus yunanensis Franch. Seed 30(8):46–49

Chandrasekara A, Shahidi F (2010) Content of insoluble bound phenolics in millets and their contribution to antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem 58(11):6706–6714.

Chimouriya S, Shrestha I, Piya S, Lamichhane J, Gauchan D (2018) Allelopathic effects of Adhatoda vasica and Eupatorium adenophorum on germination and growth behavior of Capsicum annum. Int J Innov Sci Technol 3(9):362–368

Cook DC, Fraser RW, Paini DR, Warden AC, Lonsdale WM, De Barro PJ (2011) Biosecurity and yield improvement technologies are strategic complements in the fight against food insecurity. PLoS ONE 6(10):e26084.

Devi PBR, Vijayabharath S, Sathyabama N, Malleshi G, Priyadarisini VB (2011) Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review. J Food Sci Technol.

Funk JL (2008) Differences in plasticity between invasive and native plants from a low resource environment. J Ecol 96:1162–1173

Gomez-Aparicio L, Canham CD (2008) Neighbourhood analyses of the allelopathic effects of the invasive tree Ailanthus altissima in temperate forests. J Ecol 96:447–458.

Gross EM (2003) Allelopathy of aquatic autotrophs. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:313–339.

Hierro JL, Callaway RM (2003) Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion. Plant Soil 256(1):29–39.

Jose S, Gillespie AR (1998) Allelopathy in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) alley cropping. II. Effects of juglone on hydroponically grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) growth and physiology. Plant Soil 203:199–205.

Kardell L, Steen E, Fabiao A (1986) Eucalypts in Portugal—a threat or a promise. Ambio 15:5–13

Khatri K, Bargali K, Negi B, Bargali SS (2020) Germination and early seedling growth of two rice varieties as affected by invasive Ageratina adenophora. Curr Agric Res J 8(2):108–117.

Kumar B (2016) Status of Small Millets diseases in Uttarakhand. Int J Plant Prot 9(1):256–263.

Li Y, Xu H, Shi L, Li Z (2007) Allelopathic effects of Eupatorium adenophorum on five species of the family Gesneriaceae. Biodivers Sci 15(5):486–491.

Liu PY, Liu D, Li WH, Zhao T, Sauriol F, Gu YC, Zhang ML (2015) Chemical constituent of plants from the genus Eupatorium (1904–2014). Chem Biodivers 12(10):1481–1515.

Manral V, Bargali K, Bargali SS, Shahi C (2020) Changes in soil biochemical properties following replacement of Banj oak forest with Chir pine in Central Himalaya. India Ecol Process 9:30.

Obilana AB, Manyasa E (2002) Millets. In: Belton PS, Taylor JRN (eds) Pseudocereals and less common cereals. Springer, Berlin, pp 177–217

Parihaar RS, Bargali K, Bargali SS (2013) Ecological attributes of some invasive plant species of Jhirna Range in Corbett National Park Ramnagar, Uttarakhand. J Plant Dev Sci 5(4):447–545

Shanthakumar G, Mal B, Padulosi S, Ravi SB (2010) Participatory varietal selection: a case study on small millets in Karnataka. Indian J Plant Genet Resour 23(1):117–121

Sharma GP, Esler KJ (2008) Phenotypic plasticity among Echium plantagineum populations in different habitats of Western Cape, South Africa. S Afr J Bot 74:746–749

Tripathi RS, Yadav AS, Kushwaha SPS (2012) Biology of Chromolaena odorata, Ageratina adenophora and Ageratina riparia: a review. In: Bhatt JR, Singh JS, Singh SP, Tripathi RS, Kohli RK (eds) Invasive alien plants: an ecological appraisal for the Indian subcontinent. CAB International, Oxford, pp 43–56.

Wan F, Liu W, Guo J, Qiang S, Li B, Wang J et al (2010) Invasive mechanism and control strategy of Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel). Sci China Life Sci 53:1291–1298.

Wan H, Liu W, Wan F (2011) Allelopathic effect of Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) leaf litter on four herbaceous plants in invaded regions. Zhongguo Shengtai Nongye Xuebao Chin J Eco-Agric 19(1):130–134.

Wang C, Zhou J, Liu J, Xiao H, Wang L (2018) Differences in functional traits and reproductive allocations between native and invasive plants. J Cent South Univ 25:516–525



The authors are grateful to the Head, Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand for providing all sorts of facilities. The authors are also thankful to the Department of Science and Technology (DST)-New Delhi, (DST-SERB/CRG/2019/004139), Government of India, for the financial assistance. We are specially thankful to Mr. Surendra Singh Khatri for his help during sample collection. The authors are highly thankful to the editor and all the three reviewers for their critical look and valuable suggestions.

Author Information

Khatri Kavita
Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, India
Negi Bhawna
Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, India

Bargali Kiran
Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, India
Bargali Surendra Singh
Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, India