Algal communities in man-made marshy wetlands near a coal-fired brick kiln industry in India

, ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00462-8
First Page: 1037
Last Page: 1048
Views: 1237

Keywords: Algal communities, Brick kiln industry, Pollution, Sediment, Water chemistry


Algal communities were investigated in man-made marshes near a coal-fired brick kiln industry located in India. A total of 68 algal species under 32 genera representing Cyanophyceae (8), Chlorophyceae (31), Bacillariophyceae (28) and Euglenophyceae (1) were recorded. Algal diversity was correlated with environmental factors of the marsh. Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed a positive correlation of diversity index with dissolved oxygen (r = 0.87, p ≤ 0.01) and soil organic carbon (r = 0.969, p ≤ 0.05). The pH of the water was found to be ~ 6.0. The marshes were found to be both mesotrophic and oligotrophic as indicated by Lake Condition Index (LCI). Algal species belonging to genera Oscillatoria, Closterium, Scenedesmus, Gomphonema, Navicula, Nitzschia and Euglena were observed as pollution indicator species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of different algal groups and marsh environmental factors revealed influence of DO (dissolved oxygen), electrical conductivity, pH, free CO2, TDS (total dissolved solids) and BD (bulk density) on algal growth. The species Closterium decorum, Netrium digitus, Scenedesmus kissii, Spirogyra mirabilis, Eunotia alpina, Frustulia saxonica were the common colonizers in the marshes adjoining the brick manufacturing site.

Algal communities, Brick kiln industry, Pollution, Sediment, Water chemistry

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Life Members can get full access.)



Acharjee B, Choudhury M, Dutta A, Goswami UC (1998) Productivity and fish yield in the beels of lower Brahmaputra basin. Indian J Fish 45(4):419–427

Allen SE (1989) Chemical analyses of ecological materials. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford

APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 19th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, pp 1–1268

Archibald REM (1972) Diversity in some South African diatom associations and its relation to water quality. Water Res Pergamon Press 6:1229–1238

Avitia AYC, Covarrubias ADLM (2012) Environmental assessment of brick kilns in Chihuahua State, Mexico, using digital cartography. In: The Functioning of Ecosystems pp 271–282

Barinova S, Alster A (2021) Algae and Cyanobacteria Diversity and Bioindication of Long-Term Changes in the Hula Nature Reserve. Isr Divers 13(583):1–20

Barman D, Deka SJ, Barman B (2015) Seasonal Diversity and Habitat characteristics of Algae of Wetlands in the West Garo Hill, Meghalaya, India. Res J Recent Sci 4:274–279

Baruah PP, Boruah B, Nath S, Kalita H, Bhattacharjee S (2020) Algal diversity in Deepor Beel of Assam: a Ramsar site of North East India. Nelumbo 62(2):221–252

Blanco S, Cejudo-figueiras C, Tudesque L, Becares E, Hoffmann L, Ector L (2012) Are diatom diversity indices reliable monitoring metrics? Hydrobiologia 695:199–206

Brady NC, Weil RR (2004) The nature and properties of soils. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, pp 638–666

Brady N (1990) The nature and properties of soils. 10th Edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, Cranbury

Chauhan A, Prajapati SK (2022) Algae coupled constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment, In book: Integrated Environmental Technologies for Wastewater Treatment and Sustainable Development. DOI:

Das SK, Gogoi NM, Dana SS (2011) Status of aquaculture and management practices of the primarily unmanaged ox-bow lakes (beels) of Sivasagar and Jorhat districts of Assam. Indian J Fish 58(2):107–113

Deb S, Saikia J, Kalamdhad AS (2019) Ecology of Deeporbeel wetland, a Ramsar site of Guwahati, Assam with special reference to algal community. Eur J Biomed Pharm Sci 6(5):232–243

Desikachary TV (1959) Cyanophyta. Monograph. ICAR, New Delhi, India

Devi KB, Borah D, Rout J (2018) Algal colonization on an insectivorous plant, Utricularia aurea Lour. in a freshwater marsh of southern Assam, India, Phykos 48 (2): 17–31

Devi KB, Borah D, Rout J (2019) Epiphytic algal colonization on a macrophyte, Ludwigia adscendens (L.) H. Hara from a freshwater march in Southern Assam, India, Phytotaxonomy, 18:13–23

Dey S, Dey M (2015) Deterioration and degradation of aquatic systems due to brick kiln industries – a study in Cachar District, Assam. Curr World Environ 10(2):467–472

Doley N, Kalita S (2017) Relationship between water quality index and biotic indexes: a tool to measure health of wetlands. NeBIO 8(1):35–39

Gupta S, Devi SS (2014) Ecology of Baskandi anua, an oxbow lake of south Assam, North East. India. J Environ Biol 35:1101–1105

Kar D, Dey SC, Michael RG, Kar S, Changkija S (1990) Studies on fish epidemics from Assam, India. J Indian Fish Assoc 20:73–75

Keen BA, Raczkowski H (1921) The relation between clay content and certain physical properties of soil. J Agric Sci 11:441–449

Khan HR, Rahman K, Rouf AJMA, Sattar GS, Oki Y, Adachi T (2007) Assessment of degradation of agricultural soils arising from brick burning in selected soil profiles. Int J Environ Sci Tech 4(4):471–480

Kim HS, Lee JH, Kim JH (2020) A checklist of freshwater algae from Mt. Sinbul alpine wetlands in South Korea. Nova Hedwigia 111(1):1–38

Kodarkar MS (1995) Conservation of lakes, case study of five lakes in and around Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Publ. 3. Indian Association of Aquatic Biologists (IAAB), Hyderabad pp 85

Lackey JB (1938) The manipulation and counting of river plankton and changes in some organisms due to formalin preservation. Public Health Rep 53:2080–2093

Malakar M, Boruah S (2017) A study on physico-chemical characteristics of water in three floodplain wetlands of central Assam, India. Int J Environ Nat Sci 11(1):1–9

Mangaiyarkarasi A, Ramani D, Geetha G, Lawrencia H, Naveena M (2017) A study on seasonal variation and algal biodiversity in Sulur Pond, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 8(3):580–591

Martius C, Tiessen H, Vlek PLG (2001) The management of organic matter in tropical soils: what are the priorities? Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 61:1–6

Naqvi SAMH (2004) Diseases of fruits and vegetables. Springer 1:575–579

Nath AJ, Lal R, Das AK (2018) Fired Bricks: CO2 Emission and Food Insecurity. Glob Chall 2:1700115

Odhiambo M, Routh J (2016) Does black carbon contribute to eutrophication in large lakes? Curr Pollut Rep 2:236–238

Palmer CM (1969) A composite rating of algae tolerating organic pollution. J Phycol 5(1):78–82

Plafkin JL, Barbour MT, Gerritsen J, Snyder BD, Stribling JB (1989) Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, Second Edition. EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Water, Washington, D C

Purkayastha P, Gupta S (2015) Ecology of Monabeel, a floodplain ecosystem of Cachar, Assam with special reference to aquatic insect community. Trop Ecol 56(2):245–255

Prasad BN, Misra PK (1992) Fresh Water Algal Flora of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, vol 2. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India

Prescott GW (1951) Algae of the Western Great Lakes Area. 1st Edn. WMC Brown Publishers. Dubuque Lowa. USA

Rajbongshi P, Das T (2018) Effect of brick kiln industries on the community composition of plankton in the lentic systems of Cachar District in Assam, Northeast India. Int J Res Appl Sci Eng Technol 6(II):2473–2480

Robinson GGC, Gurney SE, Goldsborough LG (1997) Response of benthic and planktonic algal biomass to experimental water-level manipulation in a prairie lakeshore wetland. Wetlands 17:167–181

Rosenberg R (1976) Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos 27:414–427

Rout J, Borah D (2009) Algal diversity in Chatla wetland in Cachar district (southern Assam). Assam Univ J Sci Technol Biol Sci 4(1):46–55

Saha CK, Hosain J (2016) Impact of brick kilning industry in peri-urban Bangladesh. Int J Environ Sci 73(4):491–501

Saikia MK, Kalita S, Sarma GC (2010) Algal indices to predict pulp and paper mill pollution load of Elenga beel (Wetland), Assam, India. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 1(4):815–821

Sarode PT, Kamat ND (1984) Fresh water diatoms of Maharashtra. Saikripa Prakashan, Aurangabad

Saxena AK (1987) Organotin compounds: toxicology and biomedicinal applications. Appl Organomet Chem 1(1):39–56

Scholes MC, Powlson D, Tian G (1997) Input control of organic matter dynamics. Geoderma 79(1–4):25–47

Shinde SE, Pathan TS, Raut KS, Sonawane DL (2011) Studies on the physico-chemical parameters and correlation coefficient of Harsool-savangi dam, Aurangabad, India. Middle East J Sci Res 8(3):544–554

Singh S, Sharma RC (2018) Monitoring of algal taxa as bioindicator for assessing the health of the high-altitude wetland, Dodi Tal, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Int J Fish Aquat Stud 6(3):128–133

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1967) Statistical methods. Lowa State University Press, Ames, Lowa

Srivastava P, Grover S, Verma J, Khan AS (2017) Applicability and efficacy of diatom indices in water quality evaluation of the Chambal River in Central India. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:25955–25976

Strickland JDH, Parsons TR (1968) A practical handbook of seawater analyses. Pigment analysis. Bull Fish Res Bd Can Ottawa, p 167



The authors acknowledge the Department of Science and Technology (DST/IS-STAC/CO2-SR-164/13 (G), Government of India, New Delhi for financial support.

Author Information

Sharma Himangshu
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar, India

Devi Queen
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar, India

Borah Dharitri
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar, India