Auxin supplemented Hoagland′s medium exhibits potentials of conserving endangered Taxus baccata subsp wallichiana


Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-021-00202-4
First Page: 439
Last Page: 446
Views: 2289

Keywords: Taxus, Yew, Bio conservation, Soil‐less culture


Himalayan yew (Taxus baccata subsp wallichiana) produces Taxol (an anticancer drug) and therefore is of commercial importance. Yew is slow growing, exhibits poor regeneration rate, low survival percentage and has long seed dormancy period low viability potential. Overexploitation of Taxus has forced scientist to think of alternative measures for growing Taxus without compromising with Taxol extraction from the plant. Hydroponics is a good method for growing plants and the same was targeted in our study. The design was to grow yew cuttings in Hoagland’s medium as nutrition medium for growing Taxus with auxin (NAA, IAA, and IBA) in 250 mg/l, 500 mg/l, 1000 mg/l, 2000 mg/l, and 5000 mg/l concentration supplemented in the medium for 16 weeks. The control plants died after 16 weeks but the auxin supplemented medium kept yew cuttings alive and resulted in increase in shoot length. On average, the yew cuttings gained an increase of more than 80 % in yew cuttings for 16 weeks. From the experiment, it was deduced that auxin in the range of 250–2000 mg/l enhances the shoot length better than higher concentration. It was seen from the comparative data between eight to 16 weeks that the percentage of increase in height of yew cutting at 5000 mg/l is 7 % for IBA, 17 % for IAA and 14 % for NAA, clearly depicting that IAA and NAA are better Auxins for eliciting growth of Yew in stress condition. This strategy can work for the conservation of Taxus baccata for its ex situ conservation.

Taxus, Yew, Bio conservation, Soil‐less culture

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



  1. Adhikari P, Pandey A (2018) Diversity of endophytic fungi associated with Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallichiana Zucc.) roots. In: Proceedings of Himalayan Researchers Consortium, pp 1

  2. Aloni R, Aloni E, Langhans M, Ullrich CI (2006) Role of auxin in regulating Arabidopsis flower development. Planta 223(2):315–328

  3. Aslam M (2018) Himalayan Yew, Taxus wallichiana: an exciting conifer with an uncertain future. NISCAIR-CSIR, India 55(2):39–40

  4. Barrios H, Zhang YL, Sandoval C, Xiao ZA (2009) Increase of taxol production in Taxus globosa Shoot callus by chlorocholine chloride. Open Natl Prod J 2:33–37

  5. Chauhan RS, Tiwari D, Bisht AS, Shukla A (2014) Ex situ conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants in Bharsar, Uttarakhand, India. Med Plants Int J Phytomed Relat Ind 6(4):282–292

  6. Cline MG (1991) Apical dominance. Bot Rev 57(4):318–358

  7. De Klerk GJ, Brugge T, Marinova S (1997) Effectiveness of indoleacetic acid, indolebutyric acid and naphthaleneacetic acid during adventitious root formation in vitro in Malus ‘Jork 9’. Planr Cell Tissue Organ Cult 49(1):39–44

  8. Fogaça CM, Fett-Neto AG (2005) Role of auxin and its modulators in the adventitious rooting of Eucalyptus species differing in recalcitrance. Plant Growth Regul 45(1):1–10

  9. Hashemi SM, Naghavi MR (2016) Production and gene expression of morphinan alkaloids in hairy root culture of Papaver orientale L. using abiotic elicitors. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 125(1):31–41

  10. Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950) The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Circular Calif agr exp stat 347(2):32

  11. Hussain A, Qarshi IA, Nazir H, Ullah I, Rashid M, Shinwari ZK (2013) In vitro callogenesis and organogenesis in Taxus wallichiana ZUCC, the Himalayan Yew. Pak J Bot 45(5):1755–1759

  12. Joshi N, Dhakal KS, Saud DS (2017) Checklist of CITES listed flora of Nepal

  13. Juyal D, Thawani V, Thaledi S, Joshi M (2014) Ethnomedical properties of Taxus wallichiana zucc.(Himalayan yew). J Tradit Complement Med 4(3):159–161

  14. Karimian R, Lahouti M, Davarpanah SJ (2015) Effects of different concentrations of 2, 4-D and kinetin on callogenesis of Taxus brevifolia Nutt. J Appl Biotechnol Rep 1(4):167–170

  15. Kevers C, Hausman JF, Faivre-Rampant O, Evers D, Gaspar T (1997) Hormonal control of adventitious rooting: progress and questions. J App Bot 71(3–4):71–79

  16. Kollmeier M, Felle HH, Horst WJ (2000) Is basipetal auxin flow involved in inhibition of root elongation. Plant Physiol 122:945–956

  17. Kundu S, Jha S, Ghosh B (2017) Metabolic engineering for improving production of taxol. Transgenesis Second Metab 463–484

  18. Lanker U, Malik AR, Gupta NK, Butola JS (2010) Natural regeneration status of the endangered medicinal plant, Taxus baccata Hook. F. syn. T. wallichiana, in northwest Himalaya. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manag 6(1–2):20–27

  19. Milutinović MG, Stanković MS, Cvetković DM, Topuzović MD, Mihailović VB, Marković SD (2015) Antioxidant and anticancer properties of leaves and seed cones from European yew (Taxus baccata L.). Arch Biol Sci 67:525–534

  20. Mohammed GH, Vidaver WE (1990) The influence of acclimatization treatment and plantlet morphology on early greenhouse-performance of tissue-cultured Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco]. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 21(2):111–117

  21. Müller D, Leyser O (2011) Auxin, cytokinin and the control of shoot branching. Ann Bot 107(7):1203–1212

  22. Nadeem M, Rikhari HC, Kumar A, Palni LMS, Nandi SK (2002) Taxol content in the bark of Himalayan Yew in relation to tree age and sex. Phytochemistry 60(6):627–631

  23. Nimachow G, Rawat JS, Dai O (2010) Status of Himalayan yews in West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. Curr Sci 98(11):1434–1437

  24. Pandey A, Nadeem M, Palni LMS (2002) Improvement in seed germination of Himalayan yew through simple soil treatments. Indian J For 25(2):109–113

  25. Pant S, Samant SS (2008) Population ecology of the endangered Himalayan Yew in Khokhan Wildlife Sanctuary of North Western Himalaya for conservation management. J Mt Sci 5(3):257–264

  26. Paul A, Bharali S, Khan ML, Tripathi OP (2013) Anthropogenic disturbances led to risk of extinction of Taxus wallichiana Zuccarini, an endangered medicinal tree in Arunachal Himalaya. Natl Areas J 33(4):447–455

  27. Pilet PE, Saugy M (1987) Effect on root growth of endogenous and applied IAA and ABA: a critical reexamination. Plant Physiol 83(1):33–38

  28. Puri SK, Habbu PV, Kulkarni PV, Kulkarni VH (2018) Nitrogen containing secondary metabolites from endophytes of medicinal plants and their biological/pharmacological activities: a review. Syst Rev Pharm 9(1):22–30

  29. Rajewski M, Lange S, Hattemer HH (2000) Problems of reproduction in the genetic conservation of rare tree species: the example of comg/lon yew (Taxus baccata L.). For Snow Landsc Res 75(1/2):251–266

  30. Rathore P, Roy A, Karnatak H (2019) Modelling the vulnerability of Taxus wallichiana to climate change scenarios in South East Asia. Ecol Ind 102:199–207

  31. Saha D, Ved D, Ravikumar K, Haridasan K (2015) Illicium griffithii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T50126617A50131370. Accessed 03 Apr 2017

  32. Sahai P, Sinha VB (2020) Collection of Taxus from Tirthan valley, Himachal Pradesh, India for conservation in non natural environment. Plant Arch 20(2):2080–2083

  33. Sahai P, Sinha VB (2020) Endangered Taxus baccata acclimitized in its non-native conditions pushing forward its ex situ conservation. Ann Agri Bio Res 25(2):194–197

  34. Sharma H, Garg M (2015) A review of traditional use, phytoconstituents and biological activities of Himalayan yew, Taxus wallichiana. J Integr Med 13(2):80–90

  35. Tafreshi SAH, Shariati M, Mofid MR, Nekui MK (2011) Rapid germination and development of Taxus baccata L. by in vitro embryo culture and hydroponic growth of seedlings. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 47(5):561–568

  36. Tapia N, Zamilpa A, Bonfill M, Ventura E, Cruz-Vega D, Del Villar A, Sosa-Cruz F, Osuna L (2013) Effect of the culture medium and biotic stimulation on taxane production in Taxus globosa Schltdl in vitro cultures. Acta Physiol Plant 35(12):3447–3455

  37. Vadivel V, Anand P, Manijkumar S, Rajalakshmi P, Brindha P (2018) Chemical fingerprints of an india traditional herbal drug talisapatra (Abies webbiana) and comparison with English yew (Taxus baccata). Int J Pharmcog Phytochem Res 10(2):84–91

  38. Wickremesinhe ER, Arteca RN (1994) Roots of hydroponically grown Taxus plants as a source of taxol and related taxanes. Plant Sci 101(2):125–135






The authors would like to express thanks to Department of Biotechnology, Sharda University for providing space, lab facilities and internet connectivity for the work.

Author Information

Sahai Pragati
Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India

Sinha Vimlendu Bhushan
Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India