Changes of soil physicochemical and enzymatic parameters at different days after sowing of barley and wheat in the Central Himalayan region, India

, , ,


Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Website:www.vegetosindia.org
Pub Email: contact@vegetosindia.org
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00513-0
First Page: 1089
Last Page: 1100
Views: 1408


Keywords: Central Himalaya, Barley, Wheat, Soil physicochemical properties, Soil enzyme activities


Abstract


Understanding the changes of soil physicochemical and enzymatic parameters at different days after sowing (DAS) of crops is essential to maintain the soil nutrient availability and quality. This study was conducted at ICAR-NBPGR, Bhowali, Nainital, India, aimed to understand the changes in soil physicochemical and enzymatic parameters at different days after sowing (DAS) of wheat and barley crops. Soil samples were collected from the experimental plots (5 m × 5 m) of barley and wheat at different DAS and depths. The soil physicochemical and enzymatic parameters were determined at different DAS of barley and wheat. The results clearly indicated that the physicochemical attributes such as soil moisture content (SMC), acidity and basicity of soil (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorus (AP), sulphur content (S), carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio), ammonium (NH4+-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) were significantly different (p < 0.05) at 60 and 120 DAS while extractable sodium (Na), extractable potassium (K), and available phosphorus (AP) at 170 DAS for both the crops. Also, among the enzymatic attributes aryl sulphatase (AS), dehydrogenase (DHA), β-glucosidase (BGlu) and acid phosphatase (APase), urease (URE) were significantly different at 60, 120 and 170 DAS for both the crops. The PCA results showed that the DAS have a close relationship with AP, S, NH4+-N, NO3-N, and soil enzyme URE. These findings will further help to strategize soil management practices involved in its sustainability without compromising soil health and food production.


Central Himalaya, Barley, Wheat, Soil physicochemical properties, Soil enzyme activities


*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)

Advertisement

References


Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Parkinson JA, Quarmby C (1974) Chemical analysis of ecological materials. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford


Avazpoor Z, Moradi M, Basiri R, Mirzaei J et al (2019) Soil enzyme activity variations in riparian forests in relation to plant species and soil depth. Arab J Geosci 12(23):1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-019-4910-2


Baresel JP, Zimmermann G, Reents HJ (2008) Effects of genotype and environment on N uptake and N partition in organically grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Germany. Euphytica 163(3):347–354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-008-9718-1


Bastida F, Kandeler E, Moreno JL, Ros M et al (2008) Application of fresh and composted organic wastes modifies structure, size and activity of soil microbial community under semiarid climate. Appl Soil Ecol 40(2):318–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2008.05.007


Błońska E, Lasota J, Zwydak M (2017) The relationship between soil properties, enzyme activity and land use. For Res Pap 78(1):39–44. https://doi.org/10.1515/frp-2017-0004


Bojko O, Kabala C (2016) Transformation of physicochemical soil properties along a mountain slope due to land management and climate changes—a case study from the Karkonosze Mountains, SW Poland. CATENA 140:43–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.01.015


Caicedo JR, van Der Steen NP, Arce O, Gijzen HJ (2000) Effect of total ammonia nitrogen concentration and pH on growth rates of duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza). Water Res 34(15):3829–3835. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00128-7


Casida LE (1977) Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations. Appl Environ Microbiol 34(6):630–636. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.34.6.630-636.1977


Dick RP (1994) Soil enzyme activities as indicators of soil quality. In: Doran JW, Coleman DC, Bezdicek DF, Steward BA (eds) Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment. ASA, Madison, pp 107–124


Eivazi F, Tabatabai MA (1988) Glucosidases and galactosidases in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 20(5):601–606. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(88)90141-1


Fang Y, Liang L, Liu S, Xu B, Siddique KH et al (2021) Wheat cultivars with small root length density in the topsoil increased post-anthesis water use and grain yield in the semi-arid region on the Loess Plateau. Eur J Agron 124(126243):1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2021.126243


Gao L, Wang B, Li S, Wu H et al (2019) Soil wet aggregate distribution and pore size distribution under different tillage systems after 16 years in the Loess plateau of China. CATENA 173:38–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2018.09.043


Ghimire R, Machado S, Bista P (2017) Soil pH, soil organic matter, and crop yields in winter wheat–summer fallow systems. J Agron 109(2):706–717. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2016.08.0462


Gianfreda L, Rao M (2011) The influence of pesticides on soil enzymes. In: Shukla G, Varma A (eds) Soil enzymology, vol 22. Springer, Berlin, pp 293–312


Gispert M, Emran M, Pardini G, Doni S et al (2013) The impact of land management and abandonment on soil enzymatic activity, glomalin content and aggregate stability. Geoderma 202–203:51–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.03.012


Guo J, Jia Y, Chen H, Zhang L et al (2019) Growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient uptake in wheat are affected by differences in nitrogen levels and forms and potassium supply. Sci Rep 9(1):1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37838-3


Hamnér K, Weih M, Eriksson J, Kirchmann H (2017) Influence of nitrogen supply on macro-and micronutrient accumulation during growth of winter wheat. Field Crops Res 213:118–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.08.002


Hlisnikovský L, Čermák P, Kunzová E, Barłóg P (2019) The effect of application of potassium, magnesium and sulphur on wheat and barley grain yield and protein content. Agron Res 17(5):1905–1917. https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.19.182


Jat HS, Datta A, Choudhary M, Sharma PC et al (2021) Soil enzymes activity: Effect of climate smart agriculture on rhizosphere and bulk soil under cereal based systems of north-west India. Eur J Soil Biol 103:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2021.103292


Kandeler E, Gerber H (1988) Short-term assay of soil urease activity using colorimetric determination of ammonium. Biol Fertil Soils 6:68–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00257924


Karunarathne SD, Han Y, Zhang XQ, Li C (2020) Advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms and potential genetic improvement for nitrogen use efficiency in barley. Agronomy 10(5):662–680. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050662


Ko J, Ng CT, Jeong S, Kim JH et al (2019) Impacts of regional climate change on barley yield and its geographical variation in South Korea. Int Agrophys 33(1):81–96. https://doi.org/10.31545/intagr/104398


Li SX, Wang ZH (2004) Nitrate accumulation in plants and its relation to crop yields. In: Zhu Z, Minami K, Xing G (eds) Third international nitrogen conference, abstracts-concurrent oral sessions. Science Press, Beijing, pp 12–16


Liu D, Huang Y, An S, Sun H et al (2017) Soil physicochemical and microbial characteristics of contrasting land-use types along soil depth gradients. CATENA 162:345–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.10.028


Maikhuri RK, Rao KS (2012) Soil quality and soil health: a review. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 38(1):19–37


Malhotra H, Sharma S, Pandey R (2018) Phosphorus nutrition: plant growth in response to deficiency and excess. In: Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M, Oku H, Nahar K, Hawrylak-Nowak B (eds) Plant nutrients and abiotic stress tolerance. Springer, Singapore, pp 171–190


Marcinkeviciene A, Boguzas V, Balnyte S, Pupaliene R et al (2013) Influence of crop rotation, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the soil enzymatic activity and humus content in organic farming systems. Eurasian Soil Sci 46(2):198–203. https://doi.org/10.1134/s1064229313020105


Maurya S, Abraham JS, Somasundaram S, Toteja R et al (2020) Indicators for assessment of soil quality: a mini-review. Environ Monit Assess 192(9):1–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08556-z


Meena A, Rao KS (2021) Assessment of soil microbial and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere zone under different land use/cover of a semiarid region, India. Ecol Process 10(1):1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-021-00288-3


Moghimian N, Hosseini SM, Kooch Y, Darki BZ (2017) Impacts of changes in land use/cover on soil microbial and enzyme activity. CATENA 157:407–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.06.003


Moradi M, Imani F, Naji HR, Moradi Behbahani S et al (2017) Variation in soil carbon stock and nutrient content in sand dunes after afforestation by Prosopis juliflorain the Khuzestan province (Iran). iForest 10:585–589. https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2137-010


Motavalli PP, Palm CA, Parton WJ, Elliott ET et al (1995) Soil pH and organic C dynamics in tropical forest soils: evidence from laboratory and simulation studies. Soil Biol Biochem 27:1589–1599. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(95)00082-P


Penn CJ, Camberato JJ (2019) A critical review on soil chemical processes that control how soil pH affects phosphorus availability to plants. Agriculture 9(6):120–138. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9060120


Rai A, Singh AK, Mishra R, Shahi B et al (2020) Sulphur in soils and plants: an overview. IJPAC 21(10):66–70. https://doi.org/10.9734/irjpac/2020/v21i1030209


Raiesi F, Salek-Gilani S (2018) The potential activity of soil extracellular enzymes as an indicator for ecological restoration of rangeland soils after agricultural abandonment. Appl Soil Ecol 126:140–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2018.02.022


Robertson GP, Wedin D, Groffman PM, Blair JM et al (1999) Soil carbon and nitrogen availability: nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and soil respiration potentials. In: Robertson GP, Coleman DC, Sollins P, Bledsoe CS (eds) Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 258–271


Rubio V, Quincke A, Ernst O (2021) Deep tillage and nitrogen do not remediate cumulative soil deterioration effects of continuous cropping. Agron J 113:5584–5596


Schittenhelm S, Kraft M, Wittich KP (2014) Performance of winter cereals grown on field-stored soil moisture only. Eur J Agron 52:247–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2013.08.010


Schneider K, Turrión MB, Gallardo JF (2000) Modified method for measuring acid phosphatase activities in forest soils with high organic matter content. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31(19–20):3077–3088. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620009370651


Singh G, Manuja S, Parmar DK, Singh D (2021) Response of rainfed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to phosphorus and potassium application. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 10(1):468–471. https://doi.org/10.22271/phyto.2021.v10.ilg.13358


Sun R, Li W, Hu C, Liu B (2019) Long-term urea fertilization alters the composition and increases the abundance of soil ureolytic bacterial communities in an upland soil. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 95(5):fiz044. https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiz044


Tabatabai M (1994) Enzymes. In: Weawer R, Augle S, Bottomly P, Bezdicek D et al (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Microbiological and biochemical properties. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 775–833 (Part 772, N°775)


Tabatabai MA, Bremner JM (1970) Arylsulfatase activity of soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 34(2):225–229. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1970.03615995003400020016x


Tigre W, Worku W, Haile W (2014) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels on growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at Bore District, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. Am J Life Sci 2(5):260–266. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajls.20140205.12


Topa D, Cara IG, Jităreanu G (2021) Long term impact of different tillage systems on carbon pools and stocks, soil bulk density, aggregation and nutrients: a field meta-analysis. CATENA 199(105102):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2020.105102


Uddin MN, Hossain MI, Iqbal MT (2020) Phenology, growth and yield of wheat varieties as affected by soil types and high temperature stress. Bangladesh J Agric Life Sci 01(1):47–54


Veliz CG, Roberts IN, Criado MV, Caputo C (2017) Sulphur deficiency inhibits nitrogen assimilation and recycling in barley plants. Biol Plant 61(4):675–684. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-017-0722-y


VeVerka JS, Udawatta RP, Kremer RJ (2019) Soil health indicator responses on Missouri claypan soils affected by landscape position, depth, and management practices. J Soil Water Conserv 74(2):126–137. https://doi.org/10.2489/jswc.74.2.126


von Tucher S, Hörndl D, Schmidhalter U (2018) Interaction of soil pH and phosphorus efficacy: long-term effects of P fertilizer and lime applications on wheat, barley, and sugar beet. Ambio 47(1):41–49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-017-0970-2


Wang C, Xue L, Dong Y, Hou L et al (2019) Contrasting effects of Chinese fir plantations of different stand ages on soil enzyme activities and microbial communities. Forests 10(11):1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10010011


Wang ZH, Miao YF, Li SX (2015) Effect of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen fertilizers on wheat yield in relation to accumulated nitrate at different depths of soil in drylands of China. Field Crops Res 183:211–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2015.07.019


Xie X, Pu L, Wang Q, Zhu M et al (2017) Response of soil physicochemical properties and enzyme activities to long-term reclamation of coastal saline soil, Eastern China. Sci Total Environ 607–608:1419–1427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.185


Ylivainio K, Lehti A, Jermakka J, Wikberg H, Turtola E (2021) Predicting relative agronomic efficiency of phosphorus-rich organic residues. Sci Total Environ 773(145618):1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145618


Young R (2012) Nature of soils in Soil properties and behaviour. In: Yong RN, Warkentin BP (eds) Developments in geotechnical engineering soil properties and behaviour. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–19


Yusong D, Shuwen D, Dong X, Chongfa C (2019) Soil erodibility and physicochemical properties of collapsing gully alluvial fans in southern China. Pedosphere 29(1):102–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(15)60105-9


Zewide I, Melash W (2021) Review on macronutrient in agronomy crops. JNFP 4(6):1–7. https://doi.org/10.31579/2637-8914/062

 


Acknowledgements


Krati Vikram is thankful to University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India for financial support through the JRF and SRF schemes for research fellowships (UGC, Ref. No: 22/12/2013(ii) EU-V). Authors are grateful to Director ICAR-NBPGR, New Delhi and Dr. IS Bisht (Former Officer In-charge), ICAR-NBPGR RS, Bhowali, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India for providing us the permission to collect the soil samples. Authors are thankful to Dr. Jyotishman Deka, Assistant Professor at Assam Don Bosco University, Assam, India for generating the DEM map of the study site.


Author Information


Vikram Krati
Natural Resource Management Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
krativikramsingh@gmail.com
Chaudhary Hina
Natural Resource Management Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India


Dinakaran J.
Department of Botany, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, University of Delhi, Delhi, India


Rao K. S.
Natural Resource Management Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India