Evaluation of stigma receptivity and its properties in Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae)

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Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
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Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00419-x
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Keywords: Antimicrobial, Esterases, Flavonoids, Peroxidases, Stigma


Abstract


Stigma receptivity has a critical role in the development of flowering plants. The time of stigma receptivity is important as it results in pollen recognition, adhesion and formation of pollen tube. The duration of receptivity may vary from few hours to few days. At receptivity, the stigma accumulates different biomolecules required for reproductive success. The purpose of present investigation is to identify the biomolecules and assess their critical role, in receptivity of stigma. Receptivity of Helianthus annuus L. (family Asteraceae), is evaluated by activity of enzymatic markers (through enzymatic method for histochemical localization), and the associated signaling molecules (localized by confocal microscopy). Esterases and Peroxidases act as the marker enzymes for receptivity in flowering plants. Interplay of reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxides and flavonoids facilitate stigma to override the stressful environmental conditions and also provide it resistance against pathogens. Present investigations, further reveal that the secondary metabolites present in stigma of sunflower act efficiently against the gram negative (Escherichia coli) and gram positive (Staphylococcus spp.) bacteria thereby highlighting stigma’s ability to defend itself and inflorescence as a whole, from microbial infection during its development. The study, thus highlights the interplay of enzymes, reactive oxygen species and flavonoids in increasing cross-tolerance in stigma of H. annuus.


Antimicrobial, Esterases, Flavonoids, Peroxidases, Stigma


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Acknowledgements


The corresponding author is grateful to Multanimal Modi college for providing basic research facilities. The authors express gratitude for the assistance received from the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (C/o Prof. SC Bhatla), University of Delhi for imaging facility.


Author Information


Sharma B.
Department of Botany, Multanimal Modi College, Modinagar, India
basudhasharma@gmail.com
Kalra G.
Department of Botany, Acharya Narendra Dev College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India


Verma H.
Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, India