Growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) as affected by farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer application in Tahtay Koraro District, Northwestern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

, ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-020-00132-7
First Page: 617
Last Page: 627
Views: 6739

Keywords: Bulb yield, Inorganic fertilizer, Onion, Organic manure, Rate


A field experiment was carried out in Tahtay Koraro district of Northwestern zone of Tigray from October 2017 to April 2018, to assess the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on growth, yield and yield components of onion. The experiment consisted of four levels of FYM (Farmyard manure) as 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha−1 and four levels of inorganic N as 0, 34.5, 69 and 103.5 kg ha−1 factorially arranged in RCB design with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed that the main effect of N, FYM as well as their interactions significantly (P < 0.05) influenced days to maturity, plant height, leaf number, leaf diameter, bulb diameter, neck diameter, average bulb weight, above ground dry biomass, marketable bulb yield and total bulb yield of onion. Similarly, main effects of N and FYM significantly (P < 0.05) affected leaf length, bulb length, unmarketable bulb yield and harvest index. The highest marketable bulb yield of 35.93 t ha−1 and 34.72 t ha−1 were obtained at combinations of 103.5 kg N ha−1 + 30 t FYM ha−1 and 103.5 kg N ha−1 + 20 t FYM ha−1 respectively. However, the lowest marketable bulb yield of 13.88 t ha−1 was obtained from the unfertilized plot. Moreover, the highest marginal rate of return was obtained at combined application of 103.5 kg N ha−1 and 10 t FYM ha−1 and thus can be recommended for onion production in the study area.

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



  1. Abdissa Y, Tekalign T, Pant L (2011) Growth, bulb yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on vertisol I. Growth attribute biomass production and bulb yield. Afr J Agric Res 6(14):3252–3258

  2. Bagali AN, Patil HB, Chimmad VP, Patil PL, Patil RV (2012) Effect of inorganics and organics on growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.). Karnataka J Agric Sci 25(1):112–115

  3. Bashir U, Qureshi F (2014) Effect of nitrogen and farmyard manure on yield, nutrient content and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Int J Biol Life sci 2(3):786–791

  4. Bremner JM, Mulvancy CS (1982) Chemical and microbiological properties. In: Page AL (ed) Methods of soil analysis, part two, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Maidison, pp 595–624

  5. CIMMYT (1988) From agronomic data to farmer recommendations: an economics training manual. Completely revised edition. Mexico, DF


  7. Datt N, Sharma RP, Sharma GD (2003) Effect of supplementary use of farmyard manure along with chemical fertilizers on productivity and nutrient up-take by vegetable pea (Pisum sativum var arvense) and buildup of soil fertility in Lahaul valley of Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Agric Sci 73:266–268

  8. EARO (Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization) (2004) Directory of released crop varieties and their management. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  9. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2008) FAO fertilizer and plant nutrition bulletin: guide to laboratory establishment for plant nutrient analysis. FAO, Rome, p 203


  11. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2011) Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Accessed on 3 Apr 2016

  12. Gebretsadik K, Dechassa N (2016) Agronomic and economic evaluation of nitrogen fertilizer rates and intra row spacing on growth and bulb yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) under rainfall condition. Environment 6(21):1–10

  13. Gessesew WS (2015) Onion (Allium cepa Var. Cepa L.) bulb traits as affected by nitrogen fertilizer rates and intra-row spacing under irrigation in Gode, South-Eastern Ethiopia. J Hortic 2(4):1–6

  14. Girma Z (2011) Response of onion (Allium cepa L. Var. Cepa) to organic and inorganic fertilizers at gode, South-Eastern Ethiopia. Doctoral dissertation, School of Graduate Studies, Haramaya University, Ethiopia

  15. Jayathilake PKS, Reddy IP, Srihari D, Neeraja G, Ravinder R (2002) Effect of nutrient management on growth, yield and yield attributes of rabi onion (Allium cepa L.). Veg Sci 29:184–185

  16. Khan H, Iqbal M, Ghaffoor A, Waseem K (2002) Effect of various plants spacing and different nitrogen levels on the growth and yield of onion. J Biol Sci 2:545–547


  18. Kokobe WY, Derbew B, Adugna D (2013) Effect of farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer rates on growth, yield and yield components of onion (Allium cepa L.) at Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Asian J Plant Sci 12:228–234


  20. MARC (Melkassa Agricultural Research Center) (2004) Progress report for 1995–2003 EARO Ethiopia

  21. Messele B (2016) Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus rates on growth, yield, and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) At Menschen Für Menschen Demonstration Site, Harar, Ethiopia. Agric Res Tech 1(3):555–563

  22. MoANRS (Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources) (2011) Irrigation agronomy. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp 140


  24. Mozumder SN, Moniruzzamanand M, Halim GMA (2007) Effect of N, K and S on the yield and storability of transplanted onion (Allium cepa L.) in the hilly region. J Agric Rural Dev 5(1 & 2):58–63

  25. Negasi T, Nigussie D, Kebede W, Lemma D, Abuhay T (2017) Effect of Integrated Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Farmyard manure on post-harvest quality and storability of onion (Allium Cepa L.). J Postharvest Technol 5(4):25–37

  26. Olsen SR (1954) Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. Circ. 939. U.S. Dep. Agric., Washington, DC

  27. Ouedrago E, Mando A, Zombre NP (2001) Use of compost to improve properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 84:259–266

  28. Shaheen A, Fatma M, Rizk A, Singer SM (2007) Growing onion plants without chemical fertilization. Res J Agric Biol Sci 3(2):95–104

  29. Shedeed SI, El-Sayed SAA, Bash DMA (2014) Effectiveness of bio-fertilizers with organic matter on the growth, yield and nutrient content of Onion (Allium cepa L.) plants. Eur Intl J Sci Technol 3(9):115–122

  30. Shigyo M, Kik C (2008) Handbook of plant breeding, vol 2. Springer, New York

  31. Tana T, Wolde ST (2015) Different rates of nitrogen fertilizer and farmyard manure at Bore, Southern Ethiopia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Haramaya University, Ethiopia

  32. Teklay T, Girmay G (2015) Impact of mixed fertilizer applications under different planting methods and seed rates on yield, yield components and nutrient use efficiency of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter]. J Bio Agric Healthc 5:2224–3208

  33. WTAO (WoredaTahtaykoraro Agriculture and Rural Development Office) (2016) Document fourth quarter of annually report. Unpublished

  34. Zakari SM, Miko S, Aliyu BS (2014) Effect of different types and levels of organic manures on yield and yield components of garlic (Allium sativum L.) at Kadawa, Kano, Nigeria. Bayero J Pure Appl Sci 7(1):121–126







The authors would like to thank the first authors family for their financial support of the research. Many thanks also goes to the staff of Shire-endaselassie Agricultural, Technical, Vocational and educational training college for their encouragement and advice and field materials support through out the research work.

Author Information

Gererufael Lchi Abrahaley
Department of Plant Sciences, Aksum University, Shire, Ethiopia

Abraham Negasi Tekeste
Department of Plant Sciences, Aksum University, Shire, Ethiopia

Reda Tesfay Belay
Tigray Institute of Agricultural Research, Mekelle Agricultural Research Center, Mekelle, Ethiopia