In vitro antibacterial activity of Acorus calamus extract on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus wound isolates and reduced invasion into mucosal fibroblasts

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Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-020-00161-2
First Page: 712
Last Page: 721
Views: 1827

Keywords: Acorus calamus , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Antibacterial activity, Bacterial invasion, Phytochemical analysis, Mucosal fibroblasts


Acorus calamus is widely used as an Indian medicinal plant and extensively reported for treatments of skin, digestive and nervous disorders. A methanol extract of A. calamus (rhizome) showed maximum extraction yield of 4% (w/w) followed by 3% (w/w) in water. Total 8 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from nose, groin, wounds, axilla, throat of various patients exhibited strong β-lactamase activity and antibiotic resistance for ampicillin, oxacillin, and methicillin coded for mec A gene. Thus, all isolates belong to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) class. Methanol extract is the most potent MRSA antibacterial extract followed by water, n-butanol and chloroform. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract varied from 1.25 to 2.50 mg/ml for all MRSA isolates which also exhibited highest MIC values of 512 µg/ml and 128 µg/ml for ampicillin and oxacillin antibiotics, respectively. Interestingly, the synergistic interaction of 128 µg/ml of A. calamus methanol extract with antibiotics (ampicillin, 64 µg/ml and oxacillin, 32 µg/ml) showed lowered MICs. All extracts of A. calamus and β-asarone showed no significant cytotoxic activity against non-cancerous 3T3 fibroblasts cells which was confirmed by MTT assay on MRSA-08 isolate. Antibacterial effect and preventive invasion properties of MRSA of methanol extract of A. calamus were found to be potent when compared with β-asarone, an active component of A. calamus. The present investigation showed a correlation of polyphenolics and flavonoid based major phytochemical constituents with bioactivities on MRSA revealed A. calamus as a potential non-toxic drug candidate for various skin diseases.

                Acorus calamus
              , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Antibacterial activity, Bacterial invasion, Phytochemical analysis, Mucosal fibroblasts

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Author Information

Pawar Rasika
Smt. Chandibai Himathmal Mansukhani College, Ulhasnagar, India

Barve Siddhivinayak
Scientific Research Centre, Vinayak Ganesh Vaze College, Mumbai, India

Zambare Vasudeo
Department of Life Sciences, School of Sciences, Sandip University, Nashik, India