Insights on plant–microbe interactions in soil in relation to iron dynamics

, ,

Review Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00467-3
First Page: 750
Last Page: 767
Views: 1791

Keywords: Iron acquisition, Iron deficiency, PGPR, Phytohormones, Plant, Rhizosphere, Siderophores


Iron is an essential micronutrient for plant growth involved in vital processes like photosynthesis, cellular respiration, chlorophyll synthesis, etc. Although Fe is abundant in the earth crust, its bioavailability is limited. Fe deficiency is a significant problem in cultivated soils worldwide, more severe in well aerated alkaline soils. Hence, plants have evolved different strategies for efficient iron uptake from soil. On the basis of these strategies, plants are classified as strategy I plants (non-graminaceous monocots and dicots) which use reduction based approach and strategy II plants (grasses) which use chelation based approach mediated by siderophores. However, these strategies alone are not adequate to meet the iron demand of plants. Thus, plants interact with rhizosphere microflora to mitigate this abiotic stress. These microorganisms contribute to iron acquisition in plants by diverse mechanisms like secretion of siderophores, organic acids, protons and plant hormones. The genes involved in the plant’s iron physiology are also modulated in the presence of rhizospheric bacteria. The exact pathway underlying the role of all these microbial products in plant-iron acquisition is not clear. The present review recapitulates the current knowledge about the iron status in soil in the form of various minerals (hematite, pyrites, sulfides etc.), soluble form or organic matter bound form. The importance of iron for plant and rhizosphere bacteria along with the plant-microbes interaction in relation to iron dynamics and microorganisms involved in plant iron uptake with various mechanisms opted by plants and microbes for acquiring iron are analysed. The research gaps and the involvement of advance technologies for better understanding in the field are also discussed.

Iron acquisition, Iron deficiency, PGPR, Phytohormones, Plant, Rhizosphere, Siderophores

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



Ahmed E, Holmström SJ (2014) Siderophores in environmental research: roles and applications. Microb Biotechnol 7(3):196–208.

Andreini C, Bertini I, Cavallaro G, Holliday GL, Thornton JM (2008) Metal ions in biological catalysis: from enzyme databases to general principles. J Biol Inorg Chem 13:1205–1218.

Andrews SC, Robinson AK, Rodríguez-Quiñones F (2003) Bacterial iron homeostasis. FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:215–237.

Arantes V, Milagres AMF (2007) Response of Wolfiporia Cocos to iron availability: alterations in growth, expression of cellular proteins, Fe3 þ-reducing activity and Fe3+ chelators production. J Appl Microbiol 104:185–193.

Årstøl E, Hohmann-Marriott MF (2019) Cyanobacterial siderophores—physiology, structure, biosynthesis, and applications. Mar Drugs 17(5):281.

Balk J, Schaedler TA (2014) Iron cofactor assembly in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 65:125–153.

Bar-Ness E, Chen Y, Hadar Y, Marschner H, Römheld V (1991) Siderophores of Pseudomonas putida as an iron source for dicot and monocot plants. Plant Soil 130(1):231–241.

Bar-Ness E, Hadar Y, Chen Y, Römheld V, Marschner H (1992) Short-term effects of rhizosphere microorganisms on Fe uptake from microbial siderophores by maize and oat. Plant Physiol 100(1):451–456.

Bashan Y, De-Bashan LE (2010) How the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum promotes plant growth—a critical assessment. Adv Agron 108:77–136

Biswas JC, Ladha JK, Dazzo FB, Yanni YG, Rolfe BG (2000) Rhizobial inoculation influences seedling vigor and yield of rice. J Agron 92(5):880–886.

Boukhalfa H, Lack JG, Reilly SD, Hersman LE, Neu MP (2003) Siderophore production and facilitated uptake of iron plutonium in P. putida (No. LA-UR-03–0913). Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Braun V, Pramanik A, Gwinner T, Köberle M, Bohn E (2009) Sidermycins: tools and antibiotics. Biometals 22:3–13.

Brear EM, Day DA, Smith PMC (2013) Iron: an essential micronutrient for the legume-rhizobium symbiosis. Front Plant Sci 4:359.

Browne P, Rice O, Miller SH, Burke J, Dowling DN, Morrissey JP, O’Gara F (2009) Superior inorganic phosphate solubilization is linked to phylogeny within the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex. Appl Soil Ecol 43:131–138.

Burton JW, Harlow C, Theil EC (1998) Evidence for reutilization of nodule iron in soybean seed development. J Plant Nutr 21(5):913–927.

Carrillo-Castañeda G, Muñoz JJ, Peralta-Videa JR, Gomez E, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2005) Modulation of uptake and translocation of iron and copper from root to shoot in common bean by siderophore-producing microorganisms. J Plant Nutr 28(10):1853–1865.

Chandwani S, Chavan SM, Paul D, Amaresan N (2022) Bacterial inoculations mitigate different forms of iron (Fe) stress and enhance nutrient uptake in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.). Environ Technol Innov 26:102326.

Chen L, Dick WA, Streeter JG (2000) Production of aerobactin by microorganisms from a compost enrichment culture and soybean utilization. J Plant Nutr 23(11–12):2047–2060.

Chen J, Baohua G, Richard AR, William DB (2003) The roles of natural organic matter in chemical and microbial reduction of ferric iron. Sci Total Environ 307:167–178.

Chen YP, Rekha PD, Arun AB, Shen FT, Lai WA, Young CC (2006) Phosphate solubilizing bacteria from subtropical soil and their tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities. Appl Soil Ecol 34(1):33–41.

Chen WW, Yang JL, Qin C, Jin CW, Mo JH, Ye T, Zheng SJ (2010) Nitric oxide acts downstream of auxin to trigger root ferric-chelate reductase activity in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 154(2):810–819.

Connorton JM, Balk J, Andguez-Celma JR (2017) Iron homeostasis in plants—a brief overview. Metallomics 9:813–823.

Cornell RM, Schwertmann U (2003) The iron oxides, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, New York

Couturier J, Touraine B, Briat JF, Gaymard F, Rouhier N (2013) The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions. Front Plant Sci 4:259.

Crowley DE (2006) Microbial siderophores in the plant rhizosphere. In: Barton LL, Abadia J (eds) Iron nutrition in plants and rhizospheric microorganisms. Springer, Netherlands, pp 169–198.

Crowley DE, Reid CPP, Szaniszlo PJ (1988) Utilization of microbial siderophores in iron acquisition by Oat. Plant Physiol 87(3):680–685.

Dakora FD, Phillips DA (2002) Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments. Plant Soil 245(1):35–47.

de Santiago A, Quintero JM, AvilésM DA (2009) Effect of Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 on iron nutrition in white lupin. Soil Biol Biochem 41(12):2453–2459.

de Santiago A, Quintero JM, Avilés M, Delgado A (2011) Effect of Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 on iron, copper, manganese, and zinc uptake by wheat grown on a calcareous medium. Plant Soil 342(1):97–104.

de Santiago A, García-López AM, Quintero JM, Avilés M, Delgado A (2013) Effect of Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 and glucose addition on iron nutrition in cucumber grown on calcareous soils. Soil Biol Biochem 57:598–605.

Delaporte-Quintana P, Lovaisa NC, Rapisarda VA, Pedraza RO (2020) The plant growth promoting bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Azospirillum brasilense contribute to the iron nutrition of strawberry plants through siderophores production. Plant Growth Regul 91(2):185–199.

Demoling F, Figueroa D, Bååth E (2007) Comparison of factors limiting bacterial growth in different soils. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2485–2495.

Dey S, Regon P, Kar S, Panda SK (2020) Chelators of iron and their role in plant’s iron management. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 26(8):1541–1549.

Dixon R, Kahn D (2004) Genetic regulation of biological nitrogen fixation. Nat Rev Microbiol 2(8):621–631.

Duijff BJ, Bakker PAHM, Schippers B (1994a) Ferric pseudobactin 358 as an iron source for carnation. J Plant Nutr 17(12):2069–2078.

Duijff BJ, De Kogel WJ, Bakker PAHM, Schippers B (1994b) Influence of pseudobactin 358 on the iron nutrition of barley. Soil Biol Biochem 26(12):1681–1688.

Enz S, Mahren S, StroeherUH BV (2000) Surface signaling in ferric citrate transport gene induction: Interaction of the FecA, FecR, and FecI regulatory Proteins. J Bacteriol 182(3):637–646.

Ferreira CM, López-Rayo S, Lucena JJ, Soares EV, Soares HM (2019a) Evaluation of the efficacy of two new biotechnological-based freeze-dried fertilizers for sustainable Fe deficiency correction of soybean plants grown in calcareous soils. Front Plant Sci 10:1335.

Ferreira CMH, Sousa CA, Sanchis-Pérez I, Lopez-Rayo S, Barros MT, Soares HMVM et al (2019b) Calcareous soil interactions of the iron(III) chelates of DPH and Azotochelin and its application on amending iron chlorosis in soybean (Glycine max). Sci Total Environ 647:1586–1593.

Frawley ER, Fang FC (2014) The ins and outs of bacterial iron metabolism. Mol Microbiol 93:609–616.

Freitas MA, Medeiros FHV, Carvalho SP, Guilherme LRG, Teixeira WD, Zhang H, Paré PW (2015) Augmenting iron accumulation in cassava by the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GBO3). Front Plant Sci 6:596.

García MJ, Suárez V, Romera FJ, Alcántara E, Pérez-Vicente R (2011) A new model involving ethylene, nitric oxide and Fe to explain the regulation of Fe-acquisition genes in Strategy I plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 49(5):537–544.

Garnica M, Bacaicoa E, Mora V, San Francisco S, Baigorri R, Zamarreño AM, Garcia-Mina JM (2018) Shoot iron status and auxin are involved in iron deficiency-induced phytosiderophores release in wheat. BMC Plant Biol 18(1):105.

Goswami D, Patel K, Parmar S, Vaghela H, Muley N, Dhandhukia P, Thakker JN (2015) Elucidating multifaceted urease producing marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa BG as a cogent PGPR and bio-control agent. Plant Growth Regul 75(1):253–263.

Graziano M, Lamattina L (2007) Nitric oxide accumulation is required for molecular and physiological responses to iron deficiency in tomato roots. Plant J52(5):949–960.

GrobelakA HJ (2017) Bacterial siderophores promote plant growth: Screening of catechol and hydroxamate siderophores. Int J Phytoremediat 19(9):825–833.

Harmsen J, Rulkens W, Eijsackers H (2005) Bioavailability, concept for understanding or tool for predicting? Land Contam Reclam 13:161–171

Hayat R, Ali S, Amara U, Khalid R, Ahmed I (2010) Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Ann Microbiol 60(4):579–598.

Hees PA, Van W, Lundström US (2000) Equilibrium models of aluminium and iron complexation with different organic acids in soil solution. Geoderma 94:201–221.

Hesse E, O’Brien S, Tromas N, Bayer F, Luján AM, van Veen EM, Hodgson DJ, Buckling A (2018) Ecological selection of siderophore-producing microbial taxa in response to heavy metal contamination. Ecol Lett 21:117–127.

Housh AB, Powell G, Scott S, Anstaett A, Gerheart A, Benoit M, Ferrieri RA (2021) Functional mutants of Azospirillum brasilense elicit beneficial physiological and metabolic responses in Zea mays contributing to increased host iron assimilation. ISME J 15(5):1505–1522.

Huang J, Jones A, Waite TD, Chen Y, Huang X, Rosso KM, Kappler A, Mansor M, Tratnyek PG, Zhang H (2021) Fe (II) redox chemistry in the environment. Chem Rev 121(13):8161–8233.

Ishimaru Y, Suzuki M, Tsukamoto T, Suzuki K, Nakazono M, Kobayashi T, Nakanishi H (2006) Rice plants take up iron as an Fe3+ phytosiderophore and as Fe2+. Plant J 45(3):335–346.

Jianjun LU, Xiancai LU, Rucheng W, Juan LI, Changjian ZHU Jianfeng, GA (2006) Pyrite surface after Thiobacillus ferrooxidans leaching at 30 °C. Acta Geol Sin-Engl 80(3):451-455.

Jin CW, He YF, Tang CX, Wu P, Zheng SJ (2006) Mechanisms of microbially enhanced Fe acquisition in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Plant Cell Environ 29(5):888–897.

Jin CW, You GY, Zheng SJ (2008) The iron deficiency-induced phenolics secretion plays multiple important roles in plant iron acquisition underground. Plant Signal Behav 3(1):60–61.

Jin CW, Ye YQ, Zheng SJ (2014) An underground tale: contribution of microbial activity to plant iron acquisition via ecological processes. Ann Bot 113(1):7–18.

Johnson GV, Lopez A, La Valle FN (2002) Reduction and transport of Fe from siderophores. Plant Soil 241:27–33.

Kabir AH, Paltridge NG, Roessner U, Stangoulis JCR (2013) Mechanisms associated with fe-deficiency tolerance and signaling in shoots of Pisum sativum. Physiol Plant 147:381–395.

Karlinsey JE, Bang IS, Becker LA, Frawley ER, Porwollik S, Robbins HF, Thomas VC, Urbano R, McClelland M, Fang FC (2012) The NsrR regulon in nitrosative stress resistance of Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol 85:1179–1193.

Kim SA, Guerinot ML (2007) Mining Iron: iron uptake and transport in plants. FEBS Lett 581:2273–2280.

Kobayashi T, Nishizawa NK (2012) Iron uptake, translocation, and regulation in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Boil 63:131–152.

Kobayashi T, Nozoye T, Nishizawa NK (2019) Iron transport and its regulation in plants. Free Radic Biol Med 133:11–20.

Kraemer SM (2004) Iron oxide dissolution and solubility in the presence of siderophores. Aquat Sci 66:3–18.

Kraepiel AML, Bellenger JP, Wichard T, Morel FMM (2009) Multiple roles of siderophores in free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Biometals 22(4):573–581.

Kramer J, Özkaya Ö, Kümmerli R (2020) Bacterial siderophores in community and host interactions. Nat Rev Microbiol 18:152–163.

Lemanceau P, Bauer P, Kraemer S, Briat JF (2009) Iron dynamics in the rhizosphere as a case study for analyzing interactions between soils, plants and microbes. Plant Soil 321:513–535.

Li W, Lan P (2017) The understanding of the plant iron deficiency responses in strategy I plants and the role of ethylene in this process by omic approaches. Fronts Plant Sci 8:40.

Li L, Ye L, Kong Q, Shou H (2019) A vacuolar membrane ferric-chelate reductase, OsFRO1, alleviates Fe toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Front Plant Sci 10:700.

Lim BL (2010) TonB-dependent receptors in nitrogen-fixing nodulating bacteria. Microbes Environ 25(2):67–74.

Lindsay WL (1979) Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley and Sons, Chuchester, New York

Liu L, Wang W, Wu S, Gao H (2022) Recent advances in the siderophore biology of Shewanella. Front Microbiol 13:823758.

López-Millán AF, Grusak MA, Abadía A, Abadía J (2013) Iron deficiency in plants: an insight from proteomic approaches. Front Plant Sci 4:254.

Lurthy T, Cantat C, Jeudy C, Declerck P, Gallardo K, Barraud C, Leroy F, Ourry A, Lemanceau P, Salon C, Mazurier S (2020) Impact of bacterial siderophores on iron status and ionome in Pea. Front Plant Sci 11:730.

Lurthy T, Pivato B, Lemanceau P, Mazurier S (2021) Importance of the rhizosphere microbiota in iron biofortification of plants. Front Plant Sci 12:744445–744445.

Malhi SS, Nyborg M, Harapiak JT (1998) Effects of long-term N fertilizer-induced acidification and liming on micronutrients in soil and in bromegrass hay. Soil Tillage Res 48(1):91–101.

Marschner P, Crowley D, Rengel Z (2011) Rhizosphere interactions between microorganisms and plants govern iron and phosphorus acquisition along the root axis—model and research methods. Soil Biol Biochem 43(5):883–894.

Masalha J, Kosegarten H, Elmaci O, Mengel K (2000) The central role of microbial activity for iron acquisition in maize and sunflower. Biol Fertil Soils 30(5):433–439.

Mengel K, Kirkby EA, Kosegarten H, Appel T (2001) Iron. In: Mengel K, Kirkby EA, Kosegarten H, Appel T (eds) Principles of plant nutrition. Springer, Dordrecht.

Mishra PK, Bisht SC, Ruwari P, Joshi GK, Singh G, Bisht JK, Bhatt JC (2011) Bioassociative effect of cold tolerant Pseudomonas spp And Rhizobium leguminosarum-PR1 on iron acquisition, nutrient uptake and growth of lentil (Lens culinaris L.). Eur J Soil Biol 47(1):35–43.

Mishra PK, Bisht SC, Mishra S, Selvakumar G, Bisht JK, Gupta HS (2012) Coinoculation of Rhizobium leguminosarum-Pr1 with a cold tolerant Pseudomonas sp. improves iron acquisition, nutrient uptake and growth of field pea (Pisum sativum L.). J Plant Nutr 35(2):243–256.

Morrissey J, Guerinot ML (2009) Iron uptake and transport in plants: the good, the bad, and the ionome. Chem rev 109(10):4553–4567.

Mushtaq Z, Asghar HN, Zahir ZA, Maqsood M (2021) The interactive approach of rhizobacteria and l-tryptophan on growth, physiology, tuber characteristics, and iron concentration of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). J Plant Growth Regul.

Nagata T, Oobo T, Aozas O (2013) Efficacy of a bacterial siderophore, pyoverdine, to supply iron to Solanum lycopersicum plants. J Biosci Bioeng 115:686–690.

Patten CL, Blakney AJC, Coulson TJD (2013) Activity, distribution and function of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in bacteria. Crit Rev Microbiol 39(4):395–415.

Pii Y, Marastoni L, Springeth C, Fontanella MC, Beone GM, Cesco S, Mimmo T (2016) Modulation of Fe acquisition process by Azospirillum brasilense in cucumber plants. Environ Exp Bot 130:216–225.

Pourbabaee AA, shoaibi F, Emami S, Alikhani HA (2018) The potential contribution of siderophore producing bacteria on growth and Fe ion concentration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under water stress. J Plant Nutrition 41(5): 619-626.

Prity SA, Sajib SA, Rahman MM, Haider SA, Kabir AH (2020) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mitigate Fe deficiency symptoms in sorghum through phytosiderophore-mediated Fe mobilization and restoration of redox status. Protoplasma 257:1373–1385.

Priyadarshini P, Chitdeshwari T, Sudhalakshmi C (2019) Iron availability in calcareous and non calcareous soils as influenced by various sources and levels of iron. Madras Agric J.

Przybyla-Toscano J, Roland M, Gaymard F, Couturier J, Rouhier N (2018) Roles and maturation of iron–sulfur proteins in plastids. J Biol Inorg Chem 23(4):545–566.

Radzki W, Gutierrez Mañero FJ, Algar E, Lucas García JA, García-Villaraco A, Ramos Solano B (2013) Bacterial siderophores efficiently provide iron to iron-starved tomato plants in hydroponics culture. Anton Van Leeu Int J G104(3):321–330.

Rashid MI, Mujawar LH, Shahzad T, Almeelbi T, Ismail IMI, Oves M (2016) Bacteria and fungi can contribute to nutrients bioavailability and aggregate formation in degraded soils. Microbiol Res 183:26–41.

Reichard PU, Kraemer SM, Frazier SW, Kretzschmar R (2005) Goethite dissolution in the presence of phytosiderophores: rates, mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of oxalate. Plant Soil 276:115–132.

Robin A, Vansuyt G, Hinsinger P, Meyer JM, Briat JF, Lemanceau P (2008) Iron dynamics in the rhizosphere: consequences for plant health and nutrition. Adv Agron 99:183–225.

Saha R, Saha N, Donofrio RS, Bestervelt LL (2013) Microbial siderophores: a mini review. J Basic Microbiol 53:303–317.

ScavinoAF PRO (2013) The role of siderophores in plant growth-promoting bacteria. Bacteria in agrobiology: crop productivity. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 265–285

Schmidt W, Thomine S, Buckhout TJ (2020) Iron nutrition and interactions in plants. Front Plant Sci.

Schwartz CJ, Giel JL, Patschkowski T, Luther C, Ruzicka FJ, Beinert H, Kiley P (2001) IscR, an Fe-S cluster-containing transcription factor, represses expression of Escherichia coli genes encoding Fe-S cluster assembly proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:14895–14900

Séguéla M, Briat JF, Vert G, Curie C (2008) Cytokinins negatively regulate the root iron uptake machinery in Arabidopsis through a growth-dependent pathway. Plant J 55(2):289–300.

Sharma A, Johri BN (2003) Growth promoting influence of siderophore-producing Pseudomonas strains GRP3A and PRS9 in maize (Zea mays L.) under iron limiting conditions. Microbiol Res 158(3):243–248.

Sharma A, Johri BN, Sharma AK, Glick BR (2003) Plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. Strain GRP3 influences iron acquisition in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilzeck). Soil Biol Biochem 35(7):887–894.

Sharma R, Bhardwaj R, Gautam V, Kohli SK, Kaur P (2018) Microbial siderophores in metal detoxification and therapeutics: recent prospective and applications. In: Egamberdieva D, Ahmad P (eds) Plant microbiome: stress response, microorganisms for sustainability, 5th edn. Springer, Singapore, pp 337–350

Shi TQ, Peng H, Zeng SY, Ji RY, Shi K, Huang H, Ji XJ (2016) Microbial production of plant hormones: opportunities and challenges. Bioengineered 8(2):124–128.

Simeoni LA (1987) Critical iron level associated with biological control of Fusarium Wilt. Phytopathology 77:1057.

Sindhu SS, Sharma R, Sindhu S, Sehrawat A (2019) Soil fertility improvement by symbiotic rhizobia for sustainable agriculture. Soil fertility management for sustainable development. Springer, Singapore, pp 101–166

Slatni T, Krouma A, Aydi S, Chaiffi C, Gouia H, Abdelly C (2008) Growth, nitrogen fixation and ammonium assimilation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to iron deficiency. Plant Soil 312(1):49–57.

Slatni T, Salah B, Kouas S, Abdelly C (2014) The role of nodules in the tolerance of common bean to iron deficiency. J Plant Res 127(3):455–465.

Small SK, Puri S, Sangwan I, O’Brian MR (2009) Positive control of ferric siderophore receptor gene expression by the Irr protein in Bradyrhizobium japonicum. J Bacteriol 191(5):1361–1368.

Soares EV (2022) Perspective on the biotechnological production of bacterial siderophores and their use. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 106(11):3985–4004.

Soares HMVM, Ferreira CMH, Soares EV (2021) Lyophilized fertilizer composition including iron siderophore chelates, lyophilized composition including siderophores, their processes of preparation and their uses in treating plants (EP 19817824.6)

Stringlis IA, Yu K, Feussner K, de Jonge R, Van Bentum S, Van Verk MC, Berendsen RL, Bakker PAHM, Feussner I, Pieterse CMJ (2018) MYB72-dependent coumarin exudation shapes root microbiome assembly to promote plant health. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115(22):E5213–E5222.

Trapet P, Avoscan L, Klinguer A, Pateyron S, Citerne S, Chervin C et al (2016) The Pseudomonas fluorescens siderophore pyoverdine weakens Arabidopsis thaliana defense in favor of growth in iron-deficient conditions. Plant Physiol 171:675–693.

Tucker NP, Hicks MG, Clarke TA, Crack JC, Chandra G, Le Brun NE, Dixon R, Hutchings MI (2008) The transcriptional repressor protein NsrR senses nitric oxide directly via a [2Fe-2S] cluster. PLoS ONE 3:303–323.

Tytova LV, Brovko IS, Kizilova AK, Kravchenko IK, Iutynska GA (2013) Effect of complex microbial inoculants on the number and diversity of rhizospheric microorganisms and the yield of soybean. Int J Microbiol Res 4(3):267–274.

Vansuyt G, Robin A, Briat JF, Curie C, Lemanceau P (2007) Iron acquisition from Fe-pyoverdine by Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 20(4):441–447.

Walter A, Römheld V, Marschner H, Crowley DE (1994) Iron nutrition of cucumber and maize: effect of Pseudomonas putida YC3 and its siderophore. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1023–1031

Wang Y, Brown HN, Crowley DE, Szaniszlo PJ (1993) Evidence for direct utilization of a siderophore, ferrioxamine B, in axenically grown cucumber. Plant Cell Environ 16(5):579–585.

Wang B, Li Y, Zhang WH (2012) Brassinosteroids are involved in response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to iron deficiency. Ann Bot 110(3):681–688.

Wang MY, Xia RX, Hu LM, Dong T, Wu QS (2015) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate iron deficient chlorosis in Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf under calcium bicarbonate stress. J Hortic Sci Biotech 82:776–780.

Wu T, Zhang HT, Wang Y, Jia WS, Xu XF, Zhang XZ, Han ZH (2012) Induction of root Fe(lll) reductase activity and proton extrusion by iron deficiency is mediated by auxin-based systemic signalling in Malus xiaojinensis. J Experimen Bot 63(2):859–870.

Wu B, Amelung W, Xing Y, Bol R, Berns AE (2019) Iron cycling and isotope fractionation in terrestrial ecosystems. Earth-Sci Rev 190:323–352.

Xiao S, Luo M, Liu Y, Bai J, Yang Y, Zhai Z, Huang J (2021) Rhizosphere effect and its associated soil-microbe interactions drive iron fraction dynamics in tidal wetland soils. Sci Total Environ 756:144056

Xu G, Fan X, Miller AJ (2012) Plant nitrogen assimilation and use efficiency. Annu Rev Plant Biol 63:153–182.

Yang Q, Li X, Han Z, Wang X, Zhao W, Yi S, Lu H (2022) DCB dissolution of iron oxides in aeolian dust deposits controlled by particle size rather than mineral species. Sci Rep 12(1):1–15.

Yehuda Z, Shenker M, Hadar Y, Chen Y (2000) Remedy of chlorosis induced by iron deficiency in plants with the fungal siderophore rhizoferrin. J Plant Nutr 23:1991–2006.

Zanin L, Tomasi N, Cesco S, Varanini Z, Pinton R (2019) Humic substances contribute to plant iron nutrition acting as chelators and biostimulants. Front Plant Sci 10:675.

Zhang H, Sun Y, Xie X, Kim MS, Dowd SE, Paré PW (2009) A soil bacterium regulates plant acquisition of iron via deficiency-inducible mechanisms. Plant J58(4):568–577.

Zhang XW, Dong YJ, Qiu XK, Hu GQ, Wang YH, Wang QH (2012) Exogenous nitric oxide alleviates iron-deficiency chlorosis in peanut growing on calcareous soil. Plant Soil Environ 58:111–120.

Zhou C, Guo J, Zhu L, Xio X, Xie X, Zhu J, Ma J, Wang W (2016) Paenibacillus polymyxa BFKC01 enhances plant iron absorption via improved root systems and activated iron acquisition mechanisms. Plant Physiol Biochem 105:162–173.

Zhou C, Zhu L, Ma Z, Wang J (2018) Improved iron acquisition of Astragalus sinicus under low iron-availability conditions by soil-borne bacteria Burkholderia cepacia. J Plant Interact 13(1):9–20.



Author Information

Dhankhar Rakhi
Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India

Gupta Shefali
Department of Industrial Microbiology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Allahabad, India

Gulati Pooja
Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India