Investigation of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Plectranthus bourneae Gamble - an endemic plant species of western ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

, , ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00424-0
First Page: 607
Last Page: 614
Views: 1331

Keywords: Plectranthus bourneae , Antibacterial activity, Phytochemicals, Antioxidant activity


The present investigation focuses on phytochemical screening and biological activities of Plectranthus bourneae, a medicinal plant species. Various solvents or ethanolic extract of leaf was used to investigate the phytochemicals by qualitative and quantitative methods, GC-MS, FTIR, and antioxidant activities. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, phytosterols, resins, phenols, tannins, diterpenes, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids. The highest concentrations of total phenolic content (50.10 ± 1.84 mg GAE/g) and tannins (83.03 µg/ml) was observed in ethanolic extracts. GC-MS results revealed the presence of various phytocompounds which are greatly known for their biological activities. The results of FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of different functional groups with peaks at 3347.74 cm− 1 (alcohols, phenols) and 2924.23 cm− 1 (alkanes). The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic leaf extract was found to be high in DPPH (441.27 µg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (22.4–74.4% at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml) scavenging assays.

                Plectranthus bourneae
              , Antibacterial activity, Phytochemicals, Antioxidant activity

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Life Members can get full access.)



Abdissa N, Frese M, Sewald N (2017) Antimicrobial abietane-type diterpenoids from Plectranthus punctatus. Molecules 22:11

Ahmad S, Ullah F, Sadiq A, Ayaz M, Imran M, Ali I, Zeb A, Ullah F, Shah MR (2016) Chemical composition, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of essential oil of Rumex hastatus D. Don collected from the North West of Pakistan. BMC Complement Altern Med 16:29

Ainsworth EA, Gillespie KM (2007) Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Nat Protoc 2:875–877

Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset CLWT (1995) Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Sci Technol 28(1):25–30

Das K, Roychoudhury A (2014) Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and response of antioxidants as ROS-scavengers during environmental stress in plants. Front Environ Sci 2:53

Evans WC (1996) In: Bailiere Tindall WB (ed) Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 14th edn. Sauders company ltd, London, pp 191–575

Falé PL, Ascensão L, Serralheiro ML, Haris PI (2011) Interaction between Plectranthus barbatus herbal tea components and human serum albumin and lysozyme: Binding and activity studies. Spectroscopy 26(2):79–92

Gupta SK, Bhatt P, Joseph GS, Negi PS, Varadaraj MC (2013) Phenolic constituents and biological activities of leaf extracts of traditional medicinal plant Plectranthus amboinicus Benth (Lamiaceae). Cell Med 3(4):32–31

Hrnčič KM, Cör D, Simonovska J, Knez Ž, Kavrakovski Z, Rafajlovska V (2020) Extraction techniques and analytical methods for characterization of active compounds in Origanum species. Molecules 25(20):4735

Jimoh MO, Afolayan AJ, Lewu FB (2019) Antioxidant and phytochemical activities of Amaranthus caudatus L. harvested from different soils at various growth stages. Sci Rep 9(1):1–14

Jung DH, Park MH, Kim CJ, Lee JY, Keum CY, Kim IS, Yun CH, Kim SK, Kim WH, Lee YC (2020) Effect of β-caryophyllene from Cloves Extract on Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Mouse Model. Nutrients 12(4):1000

Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S, Ahmed M (2012) Assessment of flavonoids contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of Launaea procumbens. Chem Cent J 6:43

Klein SM, Cohen G, Cederbaum AI (1981) Production of formaldehyde during metabolism of dimethyl sulphoxide by hydroxyl radical generating system. Biochemistry 20(21):6006–6012

Kumar K, Yadav AN, Kumar V, Vyas P, Dhaliwal HS (2017) Food waste: a potential bioresource for extraction of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds. Bioresour Bioprocess 4(1):1–14

Lukhoba CW, Simmonds MSJ, Paton AJ (2006) Plectranthus: a review of ethnobotanical uses. J Ethnopharmacol 103(1):1–24

Manikandan S, Lakshmanan GMA, Chandran C (2016) Phytochemical screening and evaluation of tuber extracts of Plectranthus rotundifolius Spreng. By GC-MS and FT-IR spectrum analysis. Int J Tradit Herb Med 4(2):36–40

Matthew KM (1993) Precursory notes for a flora of the Palni (Pulney) Hills, South India: II. Kew Bulletin 757–765

Muniyandi K, George E, Mudili V, Kalagatur NK, Anthuvan AJ, Krishna K, Thangaraj P, Natarajan G (2017) Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Plectranthus stocksii Hook. f. leaf and stem extracts. Agric Nat Resour 51(2):63–73

Naqbi KMAA, Karthishwaran K, Kurup SS, Abdul Muhsen Alyafei M, Jaleel A (2022) Phytochemicals, Proximate Composition, Mineral Analysis and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Calligonum crinitum Boiss. Horticulturae 8(2):156

Obiero DK (2017) Comparative analysis of total tannins in Plectranthus barbatus Andrews water, acetone and methanolic extracts in Kenya. J Phytopharmacol 7:293–296

Shailasree S, Ruma K, Kini RK, Prakash HS (2012) Curative properties of Buchanania lazan: As evaluated by its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and DNA Protective Properties. J Nat Pharm 3:71–77

Singh R, Verma PK, Singh G (2012) Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium. J Complement Med Res 1(2):101–104

Thaniarasu R, Senthil kumar T, Abubacker MN, Rao MV (2015) Preliminary photochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of different solvent extracts of Plectranthus bourneae gamble (Lamiaceae). Asian J Pharm Clin Res 8(1):79–82

Yu M, Gouvinhas I, Rocha J, Barros AI (2021) Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of medicinal and food plants towards bioactive food and pharmaceutical resources. Sci Rep 11(1):1–14

Zhou S, Huang G (2021) Synthesis, anti-malaria and anti‐bacterial activities of marine alkaloids. Chem Biol Drug Des.



The authors R. Thaniarasu and S. Abirami acknowledge the Department of Botany, Science campus, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, for providing lab facilities (RUSA-2.0 [F.24/51/2014-U]), infrastructure support to conduct the research work. T. Senthil Kumar and M.V. Rao are thankful to University Grants Commission, New Delhi for financial support in the form of major research project (UGC REF. NO: 40–325/2011(SR) dated 30.06.2011).

Author Information

Thaniarasu Raja
Department of Botany, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, India

Abirami Srinivasan
Department of Botany, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, India

Kumar Thiruppathi Senthil
Department of Botany, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, India
Rao Mandali Venkateswara
Department of Botany, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, India