Raj Singh, Sushil Kumar Upadhyay, Anju Rani, Permod Kumar, Amit Kumar, Chhaya Singh
Keywords: Lignocellulosic, Biodegradation, Microorganism, Soil fertility, Extracellular enzymes.
Lignin is the second most abundant aromatic biopolymer next to cellulose constituent of cell wall of vascular plants, where it acts as a structural component of support and conducting tissue. It is recalcitrant to degradation, and creates a barrier towards enzymatic attack by any microbes. It has been identified in primitive groups of plants such as ferns, club mosses and gymnosperms but absent in bryophytes and lower plants. To improve the processing of lignocellulosic feed stocks, humic compound in soil and CO2 Concentration in the environment, it’s required to develop eco-friendly strategies. Lignin degradation has found in nature through the lignolytic enzymes of microbes. Enzymatic degradation of lignin involves five extracellular enzymes- (a) laccase; (b) lignin peroxidase (Lip); (c) manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP); (d)Versatile peroxidase (VP) and (e) Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP). In the present study we discuss the structure of lignin, chemical nature and Enzymology. Authors focus on degradation of lignin through microorganisms found in the plant residues and soil that are capable of producing lignolytic enzymes, which in turn release lignin fractions in soil, hence increase soil fertility through humification.
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Authors are thankful to the Head, Department of Biotechnology, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University) for constant support during compilation of findings.