Phenology, population structure and carbon sequestration potential of Parkia timoriana: a heirloom tree in traditional Meitei homegarden of northeast India

, ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-019-00096-3
First Page: 222
Last Page: 228
Views: 1035

Keywords: Parkia timoriana , Vegetative and reproductive phenology, Biomass and carbon sequestration, Girth class, Home garden


Parkia timoriana, a leguminous tree, is an important multipurpose species growing over the northeastern part of India. The species has been closely associated with the livelihood of the society for its beneficial attributes, and therefore, besides its occurrences in the wild, the species also been commonly raised in the home gardens. However, the ecology of the species i.e., phenology, biomass and carbon sequestration potential has not been studied. Girth class distribution indicated the species exhibit more number of individuals in the midsize girth compare to the smaller and larger girth classes. The species showed maximum leaf flushing at the onset of rainy season (Apr–May), whereas, maximum leaf fall occurred during Nov–Jan. Flowering and fruiting was maximum during dry months. The individuals with 30–45 cm girth size and above showed flowering and fruiting and the individuals below this girth do not exhibit flowering and fruiting tendency. The total biomass of P. timoriana was 2.24 t ha−1 and magnitude of carbon sequestration potential was 0.23 t ha−1 year−1. The study suggests that a threshold level of girth size 30 cm and above would be required for the fruiting and flowering. In addition to its multiple uses, the species has a good potential to sequester carbon.

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



  1. Angami T, Bhagawati R, Touthang L, Makdoh B, Nirmal L, Bharati KA, Silambarasan R, Ayyanar M (2017) Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr., an underutilized multipurpose tree bean: a review. Genet Resour Crop Evol.

  2. Broadhead JS, Ong CK, Black CR (2003) Tree phenology and water availability in semi-arid agroforestry systems. For Ecol Manag 180(1–3):61–73

  3. Borchert R, Rivera G, Hagnauer W (2002) Modification of vegetative phenology in a tropical semi-deciduous forest by abnormal drought and rain. Biotropica 34:381–393


  5. Cairns MA, Brown S, Helmer EH, Baumgardner GA (1997) Root biomass allocation in the world’s upland forests. Oecologia 111:1–11

  6. Chandrashekara UM (2007) Effects of pruning on radial growth and biomass increment of trees growing in homegardens of Kerala, India. Agrofor Syst 69:231–237

  7. Chave J (2006) Measuring wood density for tropical forest trees a field manual. Lab. Evolution et Diversité Biologique. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse

  8. Choudhary VK, Singh SL, Dixit A, Arunachalam A, Bhagawati R (2014) Biomass and carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry trees in Arunachal Pradesh, North East India. Clim Change Environ Sustain 2(1):48–54

  9. Das T, Das AK (2013) Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India. Int J Biometeorol 57:185–196

  10. Devi AF, Garkoti SC (2013) Variation in evergreen and deciduous species leaf phenology in Assam, India. Trees 27:985–997

  11. Devi NL (2011) Studies on tree diversity, phenology and growth in traditional meitei homegardens of Barak valley, Assam, northeast India. Ph.D thesis submitted to Assam University.

  12. Dhaila S, Singh SP, Negi GCS, Rawat YS (1995) Shoot growth phenology of co-existing evergreen and deciduous species in an oak forest. Ecol Res 10:151–159

  13. Dimobe K, Tondoh JE, Weber JC, Bayala J, Oue´draogo K, Greenough K (2018) Farmers’ preferred tree species and their potential carbon stocks in southern Burkina Faso: Implications for biocarbon initiatives. PLoS ONE 13(12):e0199488.

  14. Ferri MG (1979) Fisiologia Vegetal, 2nd edn. Pedago´gica, Sa˜o Paulo, p 401

  15. Fitter AH, Fitter RSR (2002) Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants. Science 296(5573):1689–1691.

  16. Horpkins HCF (1986) Parkia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Flora Neotropica, 43rd edn. New York Botanical Garden, New York

  17. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Climate change: synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Geneva, Switzerland, p 104

  18. Janzen DH (1974) Tropical black water rivers, animals and mast fruiting by Dipterocarpaceae. Biotropica 6:69–103


  20. Kikim A, Yadava PS (2001) Phenology of tree species in subtropical forests of Manipur in Northeast India. Trop Ecol 42:269–276

  21. Kumar BM, George SJ, Chinnamanis S (1994) Diversity, structure and standing stock of wood in the homegarden of Kerala in Peninsular India. Agrofor Syst 25:243–262

  22. Kushwaha CP, Singh KP (2005) Diversity of leaf phenology in a tropical deciduous forest in India. J Trop Ecol 21:47–56

  23. Kushwaha CP, Tripathi SK, Singh GS, Singh KP (2010) Diversity of deciduousness and phenological traits of key Indian dry tropical forest trees. Ann For Sci 67:310–317

  24. Kushwaha CP, Tripathi SK, Singh KP (2011a) Tree specific traits affect flowering time in Indian dry tropical forest. Plant Ecol 212:985–998

  25. Kushwaha CP, Tripathi SK, Tripathi BD, Singh KP (2011b) Patterns of tree phenological diversity in dry tropics. Acta Ecol 31:79–185

  26. Luckow M, Hopkins HC (1995) A cladistic analysis of Parkia (Leguminosae: Mimosoidea). Am J Bot 82:1300–1320

  27. Mishra RK, Upadhyay VP, Bal S, Mohapatra PK, Mohanty RC (2006) Phenology of species of moist deciduous forest sites of Similipal biosphere reserve. Lyonia 11:5–17

  28. Pandey AK, Solanki KR, Gupta VK (2002) Periodical growth and phenology of 4-year-old neem in semi-arid region. Range Manag Agrofor 23:122–126

  29. Paul B, Bhuyan B, Purkayastha DD, Dhar SS (2016) Photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of gold and silver nanoparticles synthesized using biomass of Parkia roxburghii leaf. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 154:1–7

  30. Rathi RS, Misra AK, Roy S, Verma SK, Singh SK (2012) Potential of a lesser known tree species Parkia roxburghii G. Don of North East India. Indian For 138(5):476–479

  31. Ravindranath NH, Ostwald M (2008) Carbon inventory methods handbook for greenhouse gas inventory, carbon mitigation and round wood production projects. Springer, Berlin, p 29

  32. Rivera G, Elliott H, Caldas LS, Nicolossi G, Coradin VTR, Borchert R (2002) Increasing day length induces spring flushing of tropical dry forest trees in the absence of rain. Trees 16:445–456

  33. Rodrigues FCM, Costa LGS, Reis A (1990) Estratégias de estabelecimento de espéciesarbóreas e o manejo de florestas tropicais. VI Congresso Florestal Brasileiro Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura. Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, pp 676–684

  34. Salam JS (2011) Morphology and biochemistry of Parkia roxburghii G. Don, grown in different agro-climatic zones of Manipur. Thesis submitted to Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India

  35. Sathya A, Siddhuraju P (2015) Effect of processing methods on compositional evaluation of underutilized legume, Parkia roxburghii G. Don (Yongchak) seeds. J Food Sci Technol 52(10):6157–6169

  36. Sheikh Y, Maibam BC, Talukdar NC, Deka DC, Borah JC (2016) In vitro and in vivo anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective effects of edible pods of Parkia roxburghii and quantification of active constituent by HPLC-PDA. J Ethnopharmacol 191:21–28

  37. Singh KP, Kushwaha CP (2005) Emerging paradigms of tree phenology in dry tropics. Curr Sci 89:964–974

  38. Sundaram B, Parthasarathy N (2002) Tree growth, mortality and recruitment in four tropical wet evergreen forest sites of the Kolli hills, eastern ghats, India. Trop Ecol 43:275–286

  39. Tesfaye G, Teketay D, Fetene M, Beck E (2011) Phenology of seven indigenous tree species in a dry Afromontane forest, southern Ethiopia. Trop Ecol 52:229–241

  40. Thangajm U, Sahoo UK, Thong P, Sileshi GW (2019) Developing tree volume equation for Parkia timoriana grown in home gardens and shifting cultivation areas of North-East India. For Trees Livelihoods.

  41. Thongbam PD, Shakuntala I, Fiyaz AR, Moirangthem SS, Pajat JJ, Ngachan SV (2012) Tree bean (Parkia roxburghii G.Don): a complete food and ethno-medicine for North East India. Research Bulletin NO.77. ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam-793103, Meghalaya

  42. van Schaik CP, Terborgh JW, Wright SJ (1993) The phenology of tropical forests: adaptive significance and consequences for primary consumers. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 24:353–377

  43. Weaver PL (1990) Tree diameter growth rates in Cinnamon Bay Watershed, St. John, US Virgin Islands. Carib J Sci 26:1–6

  44. Yadava RK, Yadava AS (2008) Phenology of selected woody species in a tropical dry deciduous forest in Rajasthan, India. Trop Ecol 49:25–34




The authors are grateful to the owners of the homegarden in Nimaichandpur village, Assam for sharing their knowledge, allowing the field study and providing hospitality.

Author Information

Devi Ningthoujam Linthoingambi
Department of Forestry, Mizoram University, Aizawl, India

Singha Dipendra
Department of Forestry, Mizoram University, Aizawl, India

Tripathi Shri Kant
Department of Forestry, Mizoram University, Aizawl, India