Phenotypic diversity and trait association in cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-023-00595-4
First Page: 329
Last Page: 340
Views: 1365

Keywords: Cluster bean, Genetic variability, Dendrogram, Principal component analysis, Phenotype, Cluster analysis


Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) is an important industrial crop in arid and semi-arid regions. The present investigation reports phenotypic variability in 219 guar accessions based on 16 morphological traits for two consecutive years. The ANOVA showed significant differences among accessions for all the traits. The high estimates of GCV, PCV, h2b and GA were observed for days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of pods/plant and fruit yield/plant. The seed yield/ plant (SYP) showed significantly positive correlation with the number of pods/cluster, the number of pods/ plant, fruit yield/ plant, and the number of seeds/ plant in both years. Principal component analysis showed that the first three principal components accounted for more than 75% of the total variation in both years. The hierarchical clustering by Ward’s minimum variance grouped all 219 accessions into nine clusters. The cluster analysis revealed that cluster VII was the largest one and contained the maximum accessions in both years. Most of the clusters contained common accessions and cluster IX had the maximum common accessions. The cluster mean revealed that the cluster VIII was characterized by taller plant height, less number of branches, large number of pods/ plant, large pod length and pod width and high fruit yield of the accessions. The present study determines some promising diverse accessions with high potentials that could be useful for further genetic improvement programme in cluster bean.

Cluster bean, Genetic variability, Dendrogram, Principal component analysis, Phenotype, Cluster analysis

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



Ahmad MB, Hamed RA, Ali ME, Hassan AB, Babiker EE (2006) Proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar gum seeds as influenced by processing treatments. Pakistan J Nutr 5:481–484

Allard RW (1999) Principles of plant breeding, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York

Bewal S, Purohit J, Kumar A, Khedasana R, Rao SR (2009) Cytogenetical investigations in colchicine induced tetraploids of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Czech J Genet plant Breed 45:143–154

Boghara MC, Dhaduk HL, Kumar S, Parekh MJ, Patel NJ, Sharma R (2016) Genetic divergence, path analysis and molecular diversity analysis in cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.). Ind Crops Prod 89:468–477

Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254

Burruano BT, Schnaare RL, Malamud D (2002) Synthetic cervical mucus formulation. Contraception 66:137–140

Dabholkar AR (1992) Elements of biometrical genetics. Concept publishing company, New Delhi

Dhugga KS, Barreiro R, Whitten B, Stecca K, Hazebroek J, Randhawa GS, Dolan M, Kinney AJ, Tomes D, Nicholas S (2004) Guar seed beta-mannan synthase is a member of the cellulose synthase super gene family. Science 303:363–366

Frias ACD, Sgarbieri VC (1999) Guar gum effects on food intake, blood serum lipids and glucose levels of wistar rats. Plant Foods Human Nutrition 53:15–28

Girish MH, Gasti VD, Mastinoli AB, Thammaiah N, Shantappa T, Mulge R, Kerutagi M (2012) Genetic divergence studies in cluster bean genotypes (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub). Karnataka J Agricultural Sci 25:245–247

Gresta F, Avola G, Cannavo S, Santonoceta C (2018) Morphological, biological, productive and qualitative characterization of 68 guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub) genotypes. Ind Crops Prod 114:98–107

Gresta F, Sortino O, Santonoceto C, Issi L, Formantici C, Galante YM (2013) Effects of sowing times on seed yield protein and galactomannans content of four varieties of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) in a Mediterranean environment. Industrial crop and products 41:46–52

Hassan SM, Aqil AA, Attimard M (2013) Determination of crude saponin and flavonoids content in guar meal. Advancement in medicinal plant research 1:24–28

Hosobuchi C, Rutanassee L, Bassin SL, Wong ND (1999) Efficacy of acacia, pectin and guar gum- based fiber supplementation in the control of hypercholesterolemia. Nutritional Res 19:643–649

Hymowitz T, Upadhya MD (1963) The chromosome number of Cyamopsis serrata sching. Curr Sci 32:427–428

Johnson HW, Robinson HF, Comstock RE (1955) Estimates of genetic and environmental variability in soybeans. Agron J 47:314–318

Jukanti A, Bhatt R, Sharma R, Kalia R (2015) Morphological, agronomic, and yield characterization of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) germplasm accessions. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 18:83–88

Khalid MAR, Akhtar LH, Minhas R, Bukhari SJ, Zubair M, Iqbal MA (2017) Screening of guar accessions [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub] for higher yield potential under irrigated conditions. Afr J Agric Res 12:2788–2794

Kumar D, Singh NB (2002) Guar in India. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India

Kumar V, Ram RB, Yadav RK (2014) Genetic diversity in cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] For morphological characters. Indian J Sci Technol 7:1144–1148

Lee JT, Appleton SC, Haq AU, Bailey CA, Cartwright AL (2004) Quantitative measurement of negligible trypsin inhibitors activity and nutrient analysis of guar mean fraction. J Agricultural Food Chem 52:6492–6495

Mahalanobis PC (1936) On the generalized distance in statistics. Proceedings of the National Institute of Science of India 2: 49–55

Manivannan A, Anandakumar CR, Ushakumari R, Dahiva GS (2015) Genetic diversity of guar genotypes [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] Based on agro-morphological traits. Bangladesh J Bot 44:59–65

Morris JB (2010) Morphological and reproductive characterization of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) genetic resources regenerated in Georgia. USA Genetic resources and crop evolution 57:985–993

Mudgil D, Barak S, Khatkar BS (2014) Guar gum: processing properties and food applications – a review. J Food Sci Technol 51:409–418

Murthy SN, Hiremath SRR, Paranjothy KLK (2004) Evaluation of carboxymethyl guar films for the formulation of transdermal therapeutic system. Int J Pharm 272:11–18

Pabal A, More V, Sukhadev K, Parimal V, Bhausaheb G (2013) Molecular characterization of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) cultivars using PCR-based molecular markers. Int J Adv Biotechnol Res 4:158–166

Panse VG, Sukhatme PV (1967) Statistical methods for agricultural workers. Indian council of agricultural research, New Delhi 381

Pathak R, Singh SK, Singh M, Henry A (2011) Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) genotypes. J Genet 89:243–246

Patil DV (2014) Genetic variability and sowing dates effect of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) genotypes in semi-arid region of Maharashtra, India. Plant archives. 14: 1–6

Rai SP, Dharmatti PR, Shashidhar TR, Patil RV, Patil BR (2012) Genetic variability studies in clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub]. Karnataka journal of. Agric Sci 25:108–111

Rao CR (1952) Advanced statistical methods in biometrical research. Wiley, New York, p 45

Sharma A, Mishra S, Garg G (2013) Molecular characterization and genetic relationships among cluster bean genotypes based on RAPD Analysis. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 1:8–17

Sharma P, Kumar V, Venkat RK, Tiwari K (2014) A set of SCAR markers in cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) genotypes. Adv bioscience Biotechnol 5:131–141

Shyale S, Chowdary K, Krishnaiah Y, Bhat NK (2006) Pharmacokinetic evaluation and studies on the clinical efficacy of guar gum-based oral drug delivery systems of albendazole and albendazole-β-cyclodextrin for colon targeting in human volunteers. Drug Dev Res 67:154–165

Singh RK, Chaudhary BD (1985) Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India

Sultan M, Rabbani MA, Shinwari KZ, Masood (2012) Phenotypic divergence in guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) landrace genotype of Pakistan. Pak J Bot 44:203–210

Wankhade RS, Kale VS, Nagre PK, Patil RK (2017) Genetic divergence studies in cluster bean genotypes. Legume Res 40:811–817



The Authors would like to thank the Director, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, for providing the facilities to carry out the present investigation. BK is gratefully acknowledged to the Department of Science and Technology (DST) INSPIRE, New Delhi, for the financial support provided to her in the form of JRF/SRF. Authors also acknowledge the Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (RARI), Jaipur, Rajsthan, India, Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jodhpur and National Bureau of Plant Genetics Resources (NBPGR), Jodhpur, India for providing guar accessions.

Author Information

Khatoon Bushra
CSIR- National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India