Soil quality, carbon stock and climate change mitigation potential of Dipterocarp natural and planted forests of Tripura, Northeast India

, , ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00515-y
First Page: 1105
Last Page: 1118
Views: 1347

Keywords: Carbon capture, Climate change, Ecosystem carbon pool, Environmental sustainability, Tree biodiversity


Stand structure of trees is proportionally related to biomass and carbon stock production of an ecosystem. Dipterocarp (D. turbinatus Gaertn.) dominated natural forest can significantly improve the soil quality and capture carbon (C) to mitigate the climate change. The study compared soil quality, carbon stock and climate change mitigation potential of two dipteocarp dominated forest sites contrasting in management in the state of Tripura, northeast India. Stand characteristics such as tree density, basal area, diameter of breast height was measured by laying eight 31.62 m × 31.62 m quadrats. Estimation of tree biomass was carried out using the locally developed allometric equation. Nineteen tree species were recorded from the Dipterocarp dominated natural forest (DNF) while the Dipterocarp planted forest (DPF) contained six tree species. Tree density (individual ha− 1) and basal area of individuals trees (m2 ha− 1) were 590 ± 15.27, 0.103–3.061 ± 0.02 and 470 ± 6.9, 0.121–3.857 ± 0.03 in DNF and DPF, respectively. Aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC) was significantly (P = 0.092) higher in DPF than DNF and the former had higher basal area than the latter. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stock was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in DNF than DPF. The DPF was found storing more C in its ecosystem than DNF. However, DPF had poor soil quality in terms of low moisture availability and organic carbon deposition than DNF. Both these forest ecosystems are under tremendous anthropogenic stresses as a result population of Dipterocarp plant is declining day by day. The study recommended plantation of mixed species along with Dipterocarp not only to capture more C but also to improve the ecosystem and soil health vital for mitigating climate change.

Carbon capture, Climate change, Ecosystem carbon pool, Environmental sustainability, Tree biodiversity

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



Ahirwal J, Nath A, Brahma B, Deb S, Sahoo UK, Nath AJ (2021a) Patterns and driving factors of biomass carbon and soil organic carbon stock in the Indian Himalayan region. Sci Total Environ 770:145292.

Ahirwal J, Saha P, Nath A, Nath AJ, Deb S, Sahoo UK (2021b) Forest litter dynamics and environment patterms in the Indian Himalayan region. For Ecol Manag 499:119612.

Alamgir M, Al-Amin M (2007) Organic carbon storage in trees within different geopositions of Chittagong (south) forest division, Bangladesh. J Forestry Res 18(3):174–180.

Appanah S (1998) A review of dipterocarpus: introduction, taxonomy, and, ecology. CIFOR, Indonesia

Appanah S, Turnbull JM (1998) A review of dipterocarpus: taxonomy, ecology, and silviculture. CIFOR, Indonesia

Banik B, Deb D, Deb S, Datta BK (2018) Assessment of biomass and carbon stock in sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) forests under two management regimes in Tripura, northeast India. J For Environ Sci 34(3):209–223.

Blacke GR, Hartge KH (1986) Bulk Density. In: Klute, A. (Eds).Methods of soil analysis, part-I, 2nd edition, Agron Monograph, ASA and SSSA, Madison. WI: 363–375

Brown S, Gillespie AJR, Lugo AE (1989) Biomass estimation methods for tropical forests with application to forestry inventory data. For Sci 35:881–902

Champion HG, Seth SK (1968) A revised survey of the forest types of India. Natraj Publishers, Dehradun, p 404

Chandra LR, Gupta S, Pande V, Singh N (2016) Impact of forest vegetation on soil characteristics: a correlation between soil biological and physico-chemical properties. 3 Biotech 6(188):1–12

Choudhary BK, Majumdar K, Datta BK (2019) Potential biomass pools and edaphic properties of plantation forests in Tripura, India. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 45(4):369–381

Das D, Alam M (2001) Trees of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Forest Research Institute, Chittagong, Bangladesh

Deb JC, Phinn S, Butt N, McAlpine CA (2017) The impact of climate change on the distribution of two threatened Dipterocarpus trees. Ecol Evol 7:2238–2249.

Deb D, Jamatia M, Debbarma J, Ahirwal J, Deb S, Sahoo UK (2021) Evaluating the role of community-managed forest in carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation in Tripura, India.Water, Air and Soil Pollution 232:166.

Deetlefs PPDT (2010) The relationship between stand density, carbon stock, crown size and basal area growth in stands of Pinustaeda L. in the native of this species. South 24:1–28.

Devi LS, Yadava PS (2009) Aboveground biomass and net primary production of semi-evergreen tropical forest of Manipur, North-Eastern India. J Forestry Res 20(2):151–155

Devi LS, Yadava PS (2015) Carbon stock and rate of carbon sequestration in Dipterocarpus forests of Manipur, Northeast India. J Forestry Res 26(2):315–322

FAO, UNEP (2020) The state of world’s forest 2020.Forests Biodiversity and People.

FRA (2020) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020. Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations

FSI (2019) Carbon Stock in India’s Forests India.State of Forest Report 2019 Vol 1.Retrieved April, 2020.

Gamfeldt L, Snall T, Bagchi R, Jonsson M, Gustafsson L, Kjellander P, Ruiz-Jaen MC, Froberg M, Stendahl J, Philipson CD, Mikusinski G, Andersson E, Westerlund B, Andren H, Moberg F, Moen J, Bengtsson J (2013) Higher levels of multiple ecosystems services are found in forests with more tree species. Nat Communication 4:1340.

Gautam KH, Devoe NN (2006) Ecological and anthropogenic niches of sal (ShorearobustaGaertn. f.) forest and prospects for multiple- product forest management-A review. Forestry 79:81–101

Gogoi A, Ahirwal J, Sahoo UK (2021) Plant biodiversity and carbon sequestration potential of the planted forest in Brahmaputra flood plains. J Environ Manage 280:111671.

Gogoi A, Sahoo UK (2018) Impact of anthropogenic disturbance on species diversity and vegetation structure of a lowland tropical rainforest of eastern Himalaya, India. J Mt Sci 15(11):2453–2465.

Gogoi A, Sahoo UK, Saikia H (2020) Vegetation and ecosystem carbon recovery following shifting cultivation in Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rainforest eco-region, Southern Asia. Ecol Processes 9:21.

Gogoi A, Sahoo UK, Singh SL (2017) Assessment of biomass and total carbon stock in a tropical wet evergreen rainforest of eastern Himalaya along a disturbance gradient. J Plant Biology Soil Health 4:1–8.

Harmon ME, Ferrell WK, Franklin JE (1990) Effect of carbon storage of conversion of old growth forests to young. For Sci 247:699–702

Hudson JM, Gherini SA, Goldstein RA (1994) Modelling the global carbon cycle: nitrogen fertilization of the terrestrial biosphere and the “missing” CO2 sink. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 8:307–333

IUCN (2015) Species Survival Commission (2015). The IUCN red list of threatened species. Retrieved from

IPCC, Sato A, Vitullo M, Gschwantner T (2019) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2014. Refinement to the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, vol 4. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. 8.1 to 8.14

Jhariya MK, Yadav DK (2018) Biomass and Carbon Storage Pattern in Natural and Plantation Forest Ecosystem of Chhattisgarh, India. J For Environ Sci 34(1):1–11.

Kenye A, Sahoo UK, Singh SL, Gogoi A (2019a) Soil organic carbon stocks of different land use sectors of Mizoram, northeast India. AIMS Geosci 5(1):25–40.

Kenye A, Sahoo UK, Singh SL, Gogoi A (2019b) Effect of four land uses on soil edaphic factors and soil organic carbon stocks of Mizoram, north-east India. Indian Forester 145(12):1139–1146

Li X, Trogisch H, Ji S, Niklaus PA, Boruelheide H et al (2018) Tree species richness increases ecosystem carbon storage in subtropical forests. Proc Roy Soc B 285:20181240.

Mayer M, Prescott CE, Abaker WEA, Augusto L, Cecillian L, Ferreira GWD et al (2020) Tamm Review: Influence of forest management activities on soil organic carbon stock: Aknowledge synthesis. For Ecol Manag 466:118127.

McKell CM, Wilson AM, Jones MB (1961) A floating method for easy separation of roots from soil samples. J Agron 53:1–56

MoEF (2009) India’s Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi, pp 1–86

Nandy S, Das AK (2013) Comparing tree diversity and population structure between a traditional agroforestry system and natural forests of Barak valley, Northeast India. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manage 9(2):104–113.

Nath AJ, Tiwari BK, Silesh GW, Sahoo UK, Brahma B, Deb S, Devi NB, Das AK, Reang D, Chaturvedi SS, Tripathi OP, Das DJ, Gupta A(2019) Allometric Models for Estimation of Forest Biomass in North East India. Forestry 10:103

Rabha D, Borah N, Das AK (2014) Assessment of Aboveground and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in DipterocarpusForests of Barak Valley, Assam, Northeast India. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 40(1):29–40

Ravindranath NH, Ostwald M (2008) Methods for dead organic matter: deadwood and litter. In: Carbon Inventory Methods Handbook for Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production Projects. Adv Glob Change Res 29. Springer:Dordrecht.

Ruiz-Benito P, Gomez-Aparicio L, Paquette A, Messier C, Kattge J, Zavala MA (2014) Diversity increases carbon storage and tree productivity in spannish forests. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 23:311–322.

Saatchi SS, Harris NL, Brown S, Lefsky M, Mitchard ETA, Salas W, Zutlta BR et al (2011) Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(24):9899–9904.

Sahoo UK, Singh SL, Gogoi A, Kenye A, Sahoo SS (2019) Active and passive soil organic carbon pools as affected by different land use types in Mizoram, Northeast India. PLoS ONE 14(7):e0219969.

Sahoo UK, Tomar JMS, Upadhyaya K (2008) Phytosociological analysis of Pinus kesiya stands exposed to varying intensities of disturbance at Umiam Watershed in Northeast India. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 34(4):337–346

Shin MY, Miah MD, Lee KH (2007) Potential contribution of the forestry sector in Bangladesh to carbon sequestration. J Environ Manag 82:260–276

Singh SL, Sahoo UK, Kenye A, Gogoi A (2018) Assessment of growth, carbon stock and sequestration potential of oil palm plantations in Mizoram, northeast India. J Environ Prot 9:912–931.

Singh S, Dadhwal VK(2009) Manual on spatial assessment of vegetation carbon pool of India.Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (National Remote Sensing Centre), ISRO, Government of India.Dehradun.Pp: 1–32

Thong P, Sahoo UK, Thangjam U, Pebam R (2020) Pattern of forest recovery and carbon stock following shifting cultivation in Manipur, northeast India. PLoS ONE 15(10):e0239906.

USGCRP (2018) Fourth National Climate Change Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Programm. Vol. I Science

Ullah MR, Al-Amin M (2012) Above- and below-ground carbon stock estimation in a natural forest of Bangladesh. J Forestry Sci 58(8):372–379

Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chronic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37:29–38

Whitmore TC(1975) Tropical rain forest of the Far East.Clarendron Presss, Oxford

Williams IJ, Paquette A, Cavender-Bares J, Messier C, Reich PB (2017) Spatial complementary in tree crowns explain overyieding in species mixture. Nat Ecol Evol 1:63.

Zhang H, Yuan W, Dong W, Liu S (2014) Seasonal patterns of litterfall in forest ecosystem worldwide. Ecol Complex 431:1–8.



This study was financially supported by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, India (Grant No. DST/MRDP/190/2019). The authors are thankful to the Department of Forest, Environment and Climate Change, Government of Tripura for help during the field visit.

Author Information

Das Sujit
Department of Forestry and Biodiversity, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, India
Nama Abhijit
Department of Forestry and Biodiversity, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, India

Deb Sourabh
Department of Forestry and Biodiversity, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, India
Sahoo Uttam Kumar
Department of Forestry, Mizoram University, Aizawl, India