Unveiling the antioxidant properties of fruit oils extracted from the by-products of pulasan and salak

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Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email: contact@vegetosindia.org
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00406-2
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Keywords: Pulasan, Salak, Antioxidant, Nephelium mutabile Blume, Salacca zalacca , Fruit oil


Underutilized fruits such as pulasan and salak are rich in bioactive phytochemicals. However, the by-products of these fruits (seed kernel, peel, or rind) are often discarded as fruit wastes. Therefore, this study aims to determine the antioxidant activities and phytoconstituent contents of the fruit oils extracted from the by-products of pulasan and salak. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, while phytoconstituent contents (total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total carotenoid content) were determined through spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant activities of fruit oils extracted from the by-products were in the ascending order of pulasan seed kernel oil < salak seed kernel oil < salak peel oil < pulasan rind oil (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay) and pulasan seed kernel oil < pulasan rind oil < salak peel oil < salak seed kernel oil (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay). The phytoconstituent contents were in a similar order: salak seed kernel oil < pulasan seed kernel oil < salak peel oil < pulasan rind oil. Findings from the Pearson’s correlation coefficient test demonstrated that there were strong and positive correlations between TEAC and total phenolic content (r = 0.966), TEAC and total flavonoid content (r = 0.993) as well as TEAC and total carotenoid content (r = 0.998). The fruit oil extracted from the pulasan rind is a potent source of bioactive phytochemicals since it possesses the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value and phytoconstituent contents compared to its counterparts. The in-vivo study can be executed in the future to examine the health-beneficial effects of these fruit oils. Also, the pharmaceutical industry may work on reutilising these agricultural wastes to formulate nutraceuticals.


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Author Information

Murugan Rennusha
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Malaysia

Tan Seok Tyug
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Malaysia