Variability in starch granular morphology of Tinospora cordifolia: an important species of Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM)


Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-021-00286-y
First Page: 149
Last Page: 157
Views: 520

Keywords: COVID-19, Genotypes, Starch granule, Starch recovery, Tinospora cordifolia


Tinospora cordifolia is an important medicinal plant species known for therapeutic action of starch along with other medicinal ingredients. The starch prepared from the aqueous extract of fresh stems is used in the Indian Systems of Medicines. The plant extract prepared from T. cordifolia is a  promising source for the treatment of COVID-19. This investigation explores for the first time, the morphological details of the starch granules and its accumulation pattern along with its variability among the germplasm of T. cordifolia collected from different parts of India. Starch content was 39.80% on dry weight basis and moisture content was about 28.21%. Starch granule recovery based on stem dry weight and starch content ranged from 14.70 to 20.28% and 52.02 to 71.76%, respectively in different starch settling methods. Starch accumulation pattern in the stem was also studied in the species. Even though wide variability in starch granule shapes was observed among the germplasm, majority of the genotypes had starch granules of round or oval shape. Similarly, starch granule size also varied greatly (38.32–88.03 µm) within and among the genotypes. Significantly small sized starch granules (p = 0.05) were present in the genotype, IC 283650 and biggest (p = 0.05) starch granules were present in the genotype, IC 310610. The information generated in the present study will have application in starch industry for the inclusion of T. cordifolia as an alternative source of starch in addition to its use in Traditional Systems of Medicine.

*Pdf Download

(*Only SPR Members can download pdf file; #Open Access;)


Chiotelli E, Martine Le Meste M (2002) Effect of small and large wheat starch granules on thermomechanical behavior of starch. Cereal Chem 79:286–290

Choudhary N, Siddiqui MB, Azmat S, Khatoon S (2013) Tinospora cordifolia: ethnobotany, phytopharmacology and phytochemistry aspects. Int J of Pharm Sci Res 4:891–899

Geetha KA, Josphin M, Maiti S (2007) Gender instability in Tinospora cordifolia—an immunomodulator. Curr Sci 92:591–592

Gomes AMM, Silva PL, Soares SA, Silva CEM, Gallão MI, Germani R, Ricardo NMPS (2009) Isolation and physico-chemical and rheological characterisation of the Brazilian jalap starch (Operculina tuberosa Meisn.). Carbohydr Polym 7:885–890

Jane JI, Kasemsuwan T, Leas S, La A, Zobel H, Robyt JF (1994) Anthology of starch granule morphology by scanning electron microscopy. Starch/ Stärke 46:121–129

Kirtikar ID, Basu BD (1994) Indian Medicinal Plants. Lalit Mohan Basu, India, pp78

Leonel M, Sarmento SBS, Cereda MP (2003) New starches for the food industry: Curcuma longa and Curcuma zedoaria. Carbohydr Polym 54:385–388

Lu TJ, Jane J, Keeling PL, Singletary GW (1996) Maize starch fine structures affected by ear developmental temperature. Carbohydra Res 282:157–170

Moorthy SN (1990) Extraction of starches from tuber crops using Ammonia. Carbohydr Polym 91:391–398

Moorthy SN, Nair SG (1989) Studies on Dioscorea rotundata starch properties. Starch/starke 41:81–83

Peterson DG, Fulchner RG (2001) Variation in Minnesota HRS wheats: starch granule size distribution. Food Res Int 34:357–363

Riley CK (2004) In vitro digestibility of raw starches extracted from five Yam species grown in Jamaica. Starch/ Stärke 56:69–73

Rondán SGG, Finardi FF (2009) Physical–chemical and functional properties of maca root starch (Lepidium meyenii Walpers). Food Chem 114:492–498

Sadasivam S, Manickam A (1992) Biochemical methods, 2nd edn. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi

Sharma R, Prajapati PK (2017) Comparative antimicrobial screening of satva (sedimented starchy aqueous extract) and ghana (solidified aqueous extract) of Guduchi (Tinospora Cordifolia (Willd.) Miers). Innovare J Ayurvedic Sci 5:1–4

Sharma R, Harisha CR, Galib PBJ, Prajapati PK (2012) Quantitative estimation of satva extracted from different stem sizes of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. J Pharm Sci Inno 1:38–40

Sharma R, Kumar V, Ashok BK, Galib R, Prajapati PK, Ravishankar B (2013a) Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Guduchi Satva in experimental animals. Pharmacol Study 34:417–420

Sharma R, Prajapati PK, Dhiman K, Shukla VJ (2013b) Quality control evaluation of Guduchi Satva (solid aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers): an herbal formulation. Int J Green Pharm 7:258–263

Sharma R, Amin H, Galiba PPK (2013c) Seasonal variations in physicochemical profiles of Guduchi Satva (starchy substance from Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers). J Ayurveda Integr Med 4:193–197

Sharma R, Amin H, Galiba PPK (2013d) Validation of standard manufacturing procedure of Guḍūcī sattva (aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) and its tablets. Anc Sci Life 33:27–34

Sharma R, Amin H, Galiba PPK (2014) Therapeutic Vistas of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia): a medico-historical memoir. J Res Educ Indian Med 20:121–135

Sharma R, Amin H, Prajapati PK (2015a) Physicochemical evaluation of Satva extracted from male and female plants of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers). J Ayu Herb Med 1:13–16

Sharma R, Amin H, Prajapati PK (2015b) Physicochemical evaluation of male and female plants of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers). The J Phytopharmacol 4:116–120

Sharma R, Amin H, Galiba PPK (2015c) Antidiabetic claims of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers: critical appraisal and role in therapy. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 5:68–78

Singh SS, Pandey SC, Srivastava S, Gupta VS, Patro B, Ghosh AC (2003) Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi). Ind J Pharmacol 35:83–91

Usmani G, Shah SN, Chawhaan PH, Mishra Y, Mandal AK (2015) Estimation of genetic parameters and association of growth characters in Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers Ex Hook. F. & Thoms. Ind for 141:941–945

Vasanthkumar S, Arun HS (2020) Efficacy of natural compounds from Tinospora cordifolia against SARS-CoV-2 protease, surface glycoprotein and RNA polymerase. BEMS Reports 6:6–8

Vellingiri B, Jayaramayya K, Iyer M, Narayanasamy A, Govindasamy V, Giridharan B, Ganesan S, Venugopal A, Venkatesan D, Ganesan H, Rajagopalan K, Rahman PKSM, Nachimuthu SK, Subramaniam MD (2020) COVID-19: a promising cure for the global panic. Sci Total Environ 725:138277

Wang S, Gao W, Jia W, Xiao P (2006) Crystallography, morphology and thermal properties of starches from four different medicinal plants of Fritillaria species. Food Chem 96:591–596

Wang S, Yu J, Gao W, Liu H, Xiao P (2007a) New starches from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)- Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) cultivars. Carbohydr Res 341:289–293

Wang S, Yu J, Gao W, Pang J, Yu J, Xiao P (2007b) Characterization of starch isolated from Fritillaria Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). J Food Eng 80:727–734



We would like to thank Dr. Satyabrata Maiti, Former Director, ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research for providing the facilities and also for encouragement to carry out this research.

Author Information

Kavane Aarti
ICAR- Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research , Anand, India

Bishoyi Ashok Kumar
ICAR- Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research , Anand, India