Water stress response on morpho-physiology, biochemical parameters and yield of four different rice cultivars of Manipur

*Article not assigned to an issue yet


Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email: contact@vegetosindia.org
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-023-00580-x
First Page: 0
Last Page: 0
Views: 71

Keywords: Water stress, n Oryza sativa L., Total soluble sugar, Proline, Panicle


In a plant system, water content up to an optimum level is required for the different physiological processes. Drought stress was induced in four local rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars of Manipur namely Aso, Changkoh, Phourel-amubi and Taothabi for 5, 10, and 15 days. Morpho-physiological and biochemical changes during panicle initiation were assessed to observe the effect of water stress in these cultivars. After 15 days of the drought stress treatment, the Aso cultivar shows the maximum plant height(155.44 ± 0.64 cm) among the cultivars. Aso cultivars also show the highest tiller number with 10.33 ± 0.44, maximum panicle number (5.02 ± 0.03), highest grain yield per hill (114.67 ± 1.33) as compared with the remaining cultivars. Maximum chlorophyll content was also observed with Aso (1.17 mgg− 1 ± 0.02). In all the experimental results after drought stress treatment, it was observed that plant height, tiller number, total chlorophyll content, panicle number, grain yield per hillare reduced in all four rice cultivars. The content of total soluble sugar also decreases with Phourel amubi (32.92 mgg− 1± 0.09) and Taothabi (34.84 mgg− 1 ± 0.12 ) but an increase was observed with Aso (41.53 mgg− 1± 0.54 ) and Changkoh (36.19 mgg− 1± 1.26) rice cultivars. The proline content increases in all the rice cultivars of the paddy plant, showing maximum with Aso rice cultivars(0.20 mgg− 1 ±0.05). It may be noted in the present study that Proline and sugar accumulation was observed to be the highest with Aso varieties among the four varieties, which indicate the ability to give stable yield performance under stress condition. Hence, Aso cultivars can be cultivated in drought-prone area for better yield.

Water stress, n                     Oryza sativa L., Total soluble sugar, Proline, Panicle



Arabzadeh N (2012) The effect of drought stress on soluble carbohydrates (sugars) in two species of Haloxylon persicum and Haloxylon aphyllum. Asian J Plant Sci 11(1):44–51. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2012.44.51

Araus JL, Slafer GA, Reynolds MP, Royo C (2002) Plant breeding and drought in C3 cereals: what should we breed for? Ann Bot 89:925–940. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcf049

Barnett NM, Naylor AW (1966) Amino acid and protein metabolism in bermuda grass during water stress. Plant Physiol 41:1222–1230. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.41.7.1222

Bartels D, Souer E (2004) Molecular responses of higher plants to dehydration. Plant responses to abiotic stress, vol 4. Springer-Verlag/, Heidelberg,Berlin/Germany, pp 9–38

Basu S, Roychoudhury A, Saha PP, Sengupta D (2010) Differential antioxidative responses of indica rice cultivars to drought stress. Plant Growth Regul 60:51–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-009-9418-4

Bates LS, Waldeen RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00018060

Boonjung H, Fukai S (1996) Effect of soil water at different growth stages on rice growth and yield under upland condition. 2. Phenology, Biomass and yield. Field crop Res 48(1):47–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(96)00039-1

Bouman BAM, Toung TP (2001) Field water management to save water and increase in productivity in irrigated lowland rice. Aggric Water Manage 49(1):11–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(00)00128-1

Caballero JI, Verduzco CV, Galan J, Jimenez ESD (2005) Proline accumulation as a symptom of drought stress in maize: a tissue differentiation requirement. J Exp Bot 39(7):889–897. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/39.7.889

Cha-um S, Nhung NTH, Kirdmanee C (2010) Effect of mannitol- and salt-induced iso-osmotic stress on proline accumulation, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica). Pak J Bot 42:927–941

Castilo E, Siopongco J, Buresh RJ, Ingram KT, De Datta SK (1987) Effect of nitrogen timing and water deficit on nitrogen dynamics and growth of lowland rice. IRRI Saturday, 7 November. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines

Hedge JE, Hofreiter BT (1962) In: Carbohydrates Chemistry, 17, (eds. Whistler RL and Be Miller JN) Academic Press, New York.

Huke RE, Huke EH (1997) Rice Area by type of culture: South, Southeast and East Asia. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines

IRRI (2002) International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philipines. www.RiceWeb.org

Islam MT, Gretzmacher R (2001) Grain growth pattern and grain yield performance of some transplanted aman rice cultivars in relation to moisture stress. B J Nuclear Agric 16–17:21–28

Islam MT (1999) Plant water relation studies in diverse rice cultivars under Bangladesh climatic conditions. Ph. D. Thesis, Inst. Agron. And Plant Breed., Univ. Agric. Sci., Vienna

Islam MT, Islam MT, Salam MA (1994) Growth and yield performance of some rice genotypes under different soil moisture regimes. Bangia J Trg Dev 7(2):57–62

Lipiec J, Doussan C, Nosalewicz A, Kondracka K (2013) Effect of drought and heat stresses on plant growth and yield: a review. Int Agrophys 27:463–477. https://doi.org/10.2478/intag-2013-0017

Mitcell JH, Siamhan D, Wamala MH, Risimeri MH, Chinyamakobvu E, Henderson SA, Fukai S (1998) The use of seedling leaf death score for evaluation of drought resistance of rice. Field Crop Res 55:129–139

Murty KS (1987) Drought in relation to rainfed upland rice. J Agric Res Kanpur India 2(1):1–8

Nyachiro JM, Briggs KG, Hoddinott J, Johnson-Flanagan AM (2001) Chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and water deficit in spring wheat, Cereal Res. Commun.29: 135–142. DOI: 10:1007/BF03543653

Pandey S, Bhandari H (2008) Drought: economic costs and research implications. In: Seeraj R, Bennet J, Hardy B (eds.) Drought frontiers in rice: crop improvement for increased rain- fed production. World Scientific publishing, Singapore, p.3–17. ISBN: 978-981-4280-00-6

Pantuwan G, Fukai M, Cooper S, Rajatasereekul, Toole OJC (2002a) Yield response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes to different type of drought under rainfed lowlands. 1. Grain yield and yield components. Field Crop Res 73(2–3):153–168

Pantuwan G, Fukai M, Cooper S, Rajatasereekul, Toole OJC (2002b) Yield response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes to drought under rainfed lowlands. 2. Selection of drought resistant genotypes. Field Crop Res 73(2–3):169–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(01)00195-2

Rahman MT, Islam MT, Islam MO (2002) Effect of water stress at different growth stages on yield and yield contributing characters of transplanted aman rice. Pak J Bio Sci 5:169–172. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2002.169.172

Rahman MS, Yosida S (1985) Effect of water stress on grain filling in rice. Soil Sci Plant Nutri 31(4):497–511. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.1985.10557459

Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1974) Introduction to biostatics. In: W.H.Freeman (Ed), 2nd edition, New York, USA, pp.363

Singh S, Singh TN (2000) Morphological, chemical and environmental factor affecting leaf rolling in rice during water stress. Indian J Plant Physiol 5:136–141

Singh TN, Aspinall D, Paleg LG (1972) Proline accumulation and varietal adaptability to drought in barley: a potential metabolic measure of drought resistance. Nature 236:188–190. https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio236188a0

Stewart CR, Morris CJ, Thompson JF (1966) Changes in amino acid content of excised leaves during incubation II. Role of sugar in accumulation of proline in wilted leaves. Plant Physiol 41:1585–1590. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.41.10.1585

Tuner NC (1986) Crop water deficits: decade of progress. Adv Agron 39:1–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/80065-2113(08)60464-2

Wang H, Zhang L, Ma J, Li X, Li Y, Zhang R, Wang R (2010) Effects of water stress on reactive oxygen species generation and protection system in rice during grain-filling stage. Agri Sci China 9:633–641. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(09)60138-3

Witham H, Blades DF, Devin RM (1971) Experiments in plant physiology. Van Nostrand, New York, p 245

Wopereis MCS, Kropff MJ, Maligaya AR, Toung TP (1996) Drought stress response of two lowland rice cultivars to soil water status. Field Crop Res 1996 46(1–30):21–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(95)00084-4

Xonostle-Cazares B, Ramirez-Ortega FA, Flores-Elenes L, Ruiz Medrano R (2011) Drought tolerance in crop plants. Am J Plant Physiol 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajpp.2010.241.256

Yang J, Zhang J, Wang Z, Zhu Q, Wang W (2001) Remobilization of carbon reserves in response to water deficit during grain filling of rice. Field Crops Res 71:47–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(01)00147-2



The authors are grateful to the Department of Life Sciences (Botany), Manipur University for providing necessary requirements for conducting the experiments.

Author Information

Chanu Wangkhem Sandhya
Plant Physiology Section, Department of Life Sciences (Botany), Manipur University, Canchipur, Manipur, India

Sarangthem Kananbala
Plant Physiology Section, Department of Life Sciences (Botany), Manipur University, Canchipur, Manipur, India