Temporal dynamics of enzyme-driven polyphenol modifications in stored eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

*Article not assigned to an issue yet

, ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email: contact@vegetosindia.org
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-024-00847-x
First Page: 0
Last Page: 0
Views: 982

Keywords: Antioxidant, Anthocyanins, Brinjal, Polyphenol oxidase, Peroxidase, Postharvest storage, Phenolics


The Postharvest handling of eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) significantly affects their metabolic profile and enzymatic response. Limited information is available regarding the enzymatic or oxidative degradation of polyphenols in eggplants and their free radical scavenging potential (FRSP) under variable storage temperature. The present study was conducted on postharvest storage of eggplant fruits under ambient (AS) and cold storage (CS) conditions. Polyphenol content and degradation products were evaluated in eggplant fruits using biochemical methods, whereas the FRSP was analysed using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were key enzymes involved in the polyphenol degradation of eggplant. PPO (18.4–53%) and POD (9.8%) activities were reduced under cold storage as compared to the ambient storage conditions. Oxidative enzyme activities and FRSP were correlated to the phenolic content under AS and CS conditions. Storage of eggplants at CS conditions reduced the phenolics degradation significantly.

Antioxidant, Anthocyanins, Brinjal, Polyphenol oxidase, Peroxidase, Postharvest storage, Phenolics

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



Alsawmahi ON, Al-Juhaimi F, Alhamdan AM et al (2018) Phenolic, tannin, antioxidant, color, and sensory attributes of Barhi date (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit stored in modified atmosphere packages. J Food Biochem E 12576. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12576

Antony A, Farid M (2022) Effect of temperatures on polyphenols during extraction. Appl Sci 12:2107. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12042107

Aryal S, Baniya MK, Danekhu K, Kunwar P, Gurung R, Koirala N (2019) Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of wild vegetables from western Nepal. Plants 8:96. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040096

Balbaa SI, Zake AY, Elshamy AM (1974) Total flavanoid and rutin content of the different organs of Sophora japonica L. J Assoc off Anal Chem 57:752–755. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/57.3.752

Concellón A, Zaro MJ, Chaves AR, Vicente AR (2012) Changes in quality and phenolic antioxidants in dark purple American eggplant (Solanum melongena L. Cv. Lucía) as affected by storage at 0°C and 10°C. Postharv Biol Technol 66:35–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2011.12.003

Barragan J, Franco A, López J, Perez-Cervera C (2019) Effect of Storage conditions on Physicochemical characteristics and Phenolic compounds of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L). Revista De Ciencias Agrícolas 36(2):5–16. https://doi.org/10.22267/rcia.193602.114

Braga PC, Scalzo RL, Dal Sasso M, Lattuada N, Greco V, Fibiani M (2016) Characterization and antioxidant activity of semi-purified extracts and pure delphinidin-glycosides from eggplant peel (Solanum melongena L). J Funct Foods 20:411–421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.10.032

Kappel N, Mozafarian M (2022) Effects of different rootstocks and Storage temperatures on Postharvest Quality of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. Cv. Madonna) Hortic 8(10):862. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100862

Concellon A, Anon MC, Chaves AR (2007) Effect of low temperature storage on physical and physiological characteristics of eggplant fruit (Solanum melongena L). Food Sci Technol 40:389–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2006.02.004

Muche BM, Speers RA, Rupasinghe HV (2018) Storage temperature impacts on anthocyanins degradation, color changes and haze development in juice of Merlot and Ruby grapes (Vitis vinifera). Front Nut 5:100. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2018.00100

Colak N, Kurt-Celebi A, Gruz J, Strnad M, Hayirlioglu -Ayaz S, Choung MG, Esatbeyoglu T, Ayaz FA (2022) The phenolics and antioxidant properties of black and purple versus white eggplant cultivars. Molecules 27:2410. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27082410

Compton DL, Laszlo JA, Evans KO (2012) Antioxidant properties of feruloyl glycerol derivatives. Ind Crops Prod 36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.09.009.:217– 21

Enachi E, Grigore-Gurgu L, Aprodu I, Stănciuc N, Dalmadi I, Bahrim G, Râpeanu G, Croitoru C (2018) Extraction, purification and processing stability of peroxidase from plums (Prunus domestica). Int J Food Prop 21(1):2744–2757. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2018.1560311

Enaru B, Dretcanu G, Pop TD, Stanil A, Diaconeasa Z (2021) Anthocyanins: factors affecting their Stability and Degradation. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10121967. Antioxidants 10:1967

Fu R, Zhang YT, Guo YR, Huang QL, Peng T, Xu Y, Tang L, Chen F (2013) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the phenolic extracts of Sapium sebiferum (L.) leaves. J Ethnopharmac 147:517–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.058

Galani JHY, Patel JS, Patel NJ, Talati JG (2017) Storage of fruits and vegetables in Refrigerator increases their phenolic acids but decreases the total phenolics, anthocyanins and Vitamin C with subsequent loss of their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants 6(3):59. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030059

Güllçin I, Küfreviog˘lu OI, Oktay M (2005) Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and inhibitory effects of some chemicals on enzyme activity. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 20:297–302. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475636032000141890

Ismail A, Marjan ZM, Foong CW (2004) Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected vegetables. Food Chem 87:581–586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.010

Jenkins K, Diehl SV, Clausen CA, Green F (2011) Enzymatic mechanism of oxalate production in the TCA and glyoxylate pathways using various isolates of Antrodia radiculosa. In: Proceedings, one hundred seventh annual meeting of the American Wood Protection Association, Fort Lauderdale, FL. 2011 May 15–17: Volume 107. Birmingham, ALa: American Wood Protection Association, c2011: pp. 108–113

Joët T, Salmona J, Laffargue A, Descroix F, Dussert S (2010) Use of the growing environment as a source of variation to identify the quantitative trait transcripts and modules of co-expressed genes that determine chlorogenic acid accumulation. Plant Cell Env 33:1220–1233. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2010.02141.x

Liu F, Zhao JH, Wen X, Ni YY (2015) Purification and structural analysis of membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase from Fuji apple. Food Chem 183:72–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.027

Madinez MV, Whitaker JR (1995) The biochemistry and control of enzymatic browning. Trend Food Sci Technol 6:195–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(00)89054-8

Mahadevan A (1979) Physiology of host–parasite interaction. Today and Tomorrow Publication, New Delhi. 167– 71

Mahadevan A, Sridhar R (1986) In: Methods in Physiological Plant Pathology (3rd edn.), Sivakami Publications, Chennai 189–190

Massolo JF, Concellón A, Chaves AR, Vicente AR (2011) 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) delays senescence, maintains quality and reduces browning of nonclimacteric eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit. Postharv Biol Technol 59:10–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2010.08.007

Mayer AM (2006) Polyphenol oxidases in plants and fungi: going places? A review. Phytochem 67:2318–2331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.08.006

Mayer AM, Harel E (1979) Polyphenol oxidase in plants. Phytochem 18:193–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(79)80057-6

Mendes L, de Freitas V, Baptista P, Carvalho M (2011) Comparative antihaemolytic and radical scavenging activities of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) leaf and fruit. Food Chem Toxicol 49:2285–2291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.06.028

Mennella G, Lo Scalzo R, Fibiani M, D’Alessandro A, Francese G, Toppino L, Acciarri N, de Almeida AE, Rotino GL (2012) Chemical and bioactive quality traits during fruit ripening in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and allied species. J Agric Food Chem 60:11821–11831. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf3037424

Moon KM, Kwon EB, Lee B, Kim CY (2020) Recent trends in controlling the enzymatic browning of fruit and vegetable products. Molecules 25:2754. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122754

Mora J, Pott DM, Osorio S, Vallarino JG (2022) Regulation of Plant Tannin Synthesis in Crop species. Front Genet 13:870976. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.870976

Ofoedu CE, You L, Osuji CM, Iwouno JO, Kabuo NO, Ojukwu M, Agunwah IM, Chacha JS, Muobike OP, Agunbiade AO (2021) Hydrogen Peroxide effects on Natural-Sourced polysacchrides: free radical Formation/Production, degradation process, and reaction Mechanism—A critical synopsis. Foods 10:699. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040699

Patras A, Brunton NP, O’Donnell C, Tiwari BK (2010) Effect of thermal processing on anthocyanin stability in foods; mechanisms and kinetics of degradation. Trend Food Sci Technol 21:3–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2009.07.004

Pérez-Gilabert M, Carmona FG (2000) Characterization of catecholase and cresolase activities of eggplant polyphenol oxidase. J Agric Food Chem 48:695–700. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990292r

Raigón MD, Prohens J, Muñoz-Falcón JE, Nuez F (2008) Comparison of eggplant landraces and commercial varieties for fruit content of phenolics, minerals, dry matter and protein. J Food Compost Anal 21:370–376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.03.006

Reddy CVK, Sreeramulu D, Raghunath M (2010) Antioxidant activity of fresh and dry fruits commonly consumed in India. Food Res Int 43:285–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.10.006

Sadasivam S, Manickam A (1992) Biochemical methods for Agricultural sciences. WILEY Eastern Ltd., New Delhi 189– 91

Shannon LM, Kay E, Lew JY (1966) Peroxidase isozymes from horseradish roots: I. isolation and physical properties. J Biol Chem 241:2166–2172. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(18)96680-9

Sharma H, Chawla N, Dhatt AS (2019) Nutraceutical content and free radical scavenging capacity of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes. Sci Hort 244:294–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.09.060

Sharma H, Chawla N, Dhatt AS (2022) Role of phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase and anthocyanidin synthase enzymes for anthocyanin biosynthesis in developing Solanum melongena L. genotypes. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13756. Physiol Plant e13756

Sharma H, Chawla N, Dhatt AS (2023) Utilizing response surface methodology to optimize the extraction and characterization of anthocyanins from Solanum melongena L. fruit. Nat Prod Res 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2023.2244137

Shetty SM, Chandrashekar A, Venkatesh YP (2011) Eggplant polyphenol oxidase multigene family: Cloning, phylogeny, expression analyses and immunolocalization in response to wounding. Phytochem 72:2275–2287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.08.028

Silva EM, Souza JNS, Rogez H, Rees JF, Larondelle Y (2007) Antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents of fifteen selected plant species from the amazonian region. Food Chem 101:1012–1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.02.055

Swain T, Hillis WE (1959) The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica I. The quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. J Sci Food Agric 10:63–68. https://doi.org/10.1002/JSFA.2740100110

Tan C, Dadmohammadi Y, Lee MC, Abbaspourrad A (2021) Combination of copigmentation and encapsulation strategies for the synergistic stabilization of anthocyanins. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 20:3164–3191. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12772

Tao W, Pan H, Jiang H, Wang M, Ye X, Chen S (2022) Extraction and identification of proanthocyanidins from the leaves of persimmon and loquat. Food Chem 372:130780. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130780

Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Crosby K, Cisneros-Zevallos L, Byrne DH (2006) Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J Food Compos Anal 19:669–675. http://refhub.elsevier.com/S0304-4238(18)30678-2/sbref027

Torun H, Kolcuoglu Y, Ayaz FA, Çolak A, Glew RH (2015) Characterization of polyphenol oxidase during three ripening stages of an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit: a local type in northeast Anatolia. Turk J Biochem 40:44–50. https://doi.org/10.5505/tjb.2015.27146

Zauberman G, Ronen R, Akerman M, Wrksler A, Rot I, Fuchs Y (1991) Postharvest retention of the red color of litchi fruit pericarp. Sci Hort 47:89–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(91)90030-3

Zhang Y, Truzzi F, D’Amen E, Dinelli G (2021) Effect of storage conditions and time on the polyphenol content of wheat flours. Processes 9:248. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020248



Author Information

Sharma Himanshu
Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India
Chawla Neena
Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India

Dhatt Ajmer Singh
Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India