Mild-NaCl stress increases protein and nitrogen contents of common bean (Phaselous vulgaris) grains

*Article not assigned to an issue yet

, , , , , , , , ,

Short Communications | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-024-00907-2
First Page: 0
Last Page: 0
Views: 370

Keywords: Abiotic stress, Climate change, Grain quality, Legume, Soil salinity


Legumes are highly valued as a food and feed source because of its high nutritional value, with the common bean being the most consumed pulse within this family. However, this species is highly sensitive to saline stress, which is becoming an increasing problem in the agricultural context due to rising levels of soil salinization because of anthropogenic activities (secondary salinization). Therefore, the current contribution reports the response of common bean seeds (Phaselous vulgaris, Cultivar ‘ICA Pijao’) to saline stress applied as 0 to 60 g of sodium chloride (NaCl) per pot (i.e. 0.48 ± 0.03 to 4.82 ± 0.47 dS m−1) at the start of the trial. By 14 d, only plants exposed to the lowest NaCl concentration survived (15 g NaCl per pot). The imposition of saline stress resulted in a significant reduction of root biomass and yield and an increase in leaf senescence. However, there was evidence to indicate a small (significant) increase in the protein content of grain from plants exposed to salt stress (27.28 ± 0.98%) compared with control plants (25.47 ± 0.35%) as well as the nitrogen (N) content of grain (4.36 ± 0.16 and 4.07 ± 0.05% in salt stressed and control plants, respectively).

Abiotic stress, Climate change, Grain quality, Legume, Soil salinity

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis, 17th edn. Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC), Gaithersburg

Bayuelo-Jiménez JS, Debouck DG, Lynch JP (2003) Growth, gas exchange, water relations, and ion composition of Phaseolus species grown under saline conditions. Field Crops Res 80:207–222

Broughton WJ, Hernandez G, Blair M, Beebe S, Gepts P, Vanderleyden J (2003) Beans (Phaseolus spp.)-model food legumes. Plant Soil Environ 252:55–128

Bruinsma J (2009) The resource outlook to 2050: by how much do land, water and crop yields need to increase by 2050? Expert meeting on how to feed the world in 2050.

Cai XJ, Guan S, Guo X (2012) Effects of NaCl stress on antioxidant enzymes activities and soluble protein content in three kinds of sweet potatoes (Dioscorea esculenta). J Anhui Agric Sci 40:9228–9229

Chojnacka K, Moustakas K, Witek-Krowiak A (2020) Bio-based fertilizers: a practical approach towards circular economy. Biores Technol 295:122223

Dadshani S, Sharma RC, Baum M, Ogbonnaya FC, Leon J, Ballvora A (2019) Multi-dimensional evaluation of response to salt stress in wheat. PLoS One 14:e0222659

FAONews (2021) World agriculture 2030: main findings. Accessed 13 Aug 2023

FAOSTAT (2019) Accessed 31 Mar 2021

Faurès JM, Hoogeveen J, Bruinsma J (2002) The FAO irrigated area forecast for 2030. FAO, Rome, pp 1–14

García M, García G, Parola R, Maddela NR, Pérez-Almeida I, Garcés-Fiallos FR (2024) Root-shoot ratio and SOD activity are associated with the sensitivity of common bean seedlings to NaCl salinization. Rhizosphere 29:100848

Guzmán-Maldonado SH, Acosta-Gallegos J, Paredes-López O (2000) Protein and mineral content of a novel collection of wild and weedy common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). J Sci Food Agric 80:1874–1881

ISTA (2005) International Rules for Seed Testing International Seed Testing Association, Bassersdorf, Switzerland

Jamil A, Riaz S, Ashraf M, Foolad M (2011) Gene expression profiling of plants under salt stress. Crit Rev Plant Sci 30:435–458

Kocira S, Szparaga A, Findura P, Treder K (2020) Modification of yield and fiber fractions biosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by treatment with biostimulants containing amino acids and seaweed extract. Agronomy 10:1338

Kumar S, Meena RS, Datta R, Verma SK, Yadav GS, Pradhan G, Molaei A, Rahman GM, Mashuk H (2020) Legumes for carbon and nitrogen cycling: an organic approach. In: Carbon and nitrogen cycling in soil, pp 337–375

Liu Y, Li C, Hong X, Xu Y, Guo J, Chen M, Yu Y, Wang Y, Fenming M (2015) Effects of saline-alkali stress on nitrogen metabolism activity and root yield and sugar content of sugar beet. J Nuclear Agric Sci 29:397–404

Lorenzo JC, Yabor L, Medina N, Quintana N, Wells V (2015) Coefficient of variation can identify the most important effects of experimental treatments. Not Bot Horti Agrobo Cluj-Nap 43:287–291

Medendorp J, DeYoung D, Thiagarajan DG, Duckworth R, Pittendrigh B (2022) A systems perspective of the role of dry beans and pulses in the future of global food security: opportunities and challenges. In: Dry beans and pulses: production, processing, and nutrition, pp 531–550

Muroki MW, Waswa LM, Fungo R, Kabwama A, Eric N, Nepomuscene N, Ndabashinze B, Mahungu SM (2024) Sensory properties of selected biofortified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties grown in Burundi. Food Sci Nutr 1–15

Nadeem MA, Yeken MZ, Shahid MQ, Habyarimana E, Yılmaz H, Alsaleh A, Hatipoğlu R, Çilesiz Y, Khawar KM, Ludidi N (2021) Common bean as a potential crop for future food security: an overview of past, current and future contributions in genomics, transcriptomics, transgenics and proteomics. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 35:759–787

Neumann PM (1995) Inhibition of root growth by salinity stress: toxicity or an Adaptive biophysical response? In: Structure and function of roots: proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Structure and Function of Roots. Springer, Stará Lesná, Slovakia, pp 299–304

Pacheco R, Estrada-Navarrete G, Solis-Miranda J, Nava N, Juárez-Verdayes M, Ortega-Ortega Y, Quinto C (2024) A comprehensive, improved protocol for generating common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) transgenic hairy roots and their use in reverse-genetics studies. PLoS One 19:e0294425

Qadir SA, Fathulla C (2024) Physiological and anatomical responses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to nickle nanoparticles foliar spray. Iraq J Agric Sci 55:80–89

Rady MM (2011) Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on growth, yield, antioxidant system and cadmium content of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants under salinity and cadmium stress. Sci Horticult 129:232–237

Raggi L, Caproni L, Ciancaleoni S, D’Amato R, Businelli D, Negri V (2024) Investigating the genetic basis of salt-tolerance in common bean: a genome-wide association study at the early vegetative stage. Sci Rep 14:5315

Rani K, Sharma P, Kumar S, Wati L, Kumar R, Gurjar DS, Kumar D, Kumar R (2019) Legumes for sustainable soil and crop management. Sust Manag Soil Environ 193–215

Savvas D, Mantzos N, Barouchas P, Tsirogiannis I, Olympios C, Passam H (2007) Modelling salt accumulation by a bean crop grown in a closed hydroponic system in relation to water uptake. Sci Horticult 111:311–318

Scholberg J, Locascio S (1999) Growth response of snap bean and tomato as affected by salinity and irrigation method. HortScience 34:259–264

Seemann JR, Critchley C (1985) Effects of salt stress on the growth, ion content, stomatal behaviour and photosynthetic capacity of a salt-sensitive species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Planta 164:151–162

Sharma P, Tailor A, Joshi A, Bhoi TK (2024) Genetic diversity of grain legumes for food and nutritional security. In: Sustainable utilization and conservation of plant genetic diversity. Springer, Berlin, pp 63–105

Shrivastava P, Kumar R (2015) Soil salinity: a serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi J Biol Sci 22:123–131

Singh A (2015) Soil salinization and waterlogging: a threat to environment and agricultural sustainability. Ecol Indic 57:128–130

Subramani M, Urrea CA, Tamatamu SR, Sripathi VR, Williams K, Chintapenta LK, Todd A, Ozbay G (2024) Comprehensive proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds reveal shared and unique proteins involved in terminal drought stress response in tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Biomolecules 14:109

Taïbi K, Taïbi F, Abderrahim LA, Ennajah A, Belkhodja M, Mulet JM (2016) Effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence systems in Phaseolus vulgaris L. S Afr J Bot 105:306–312

Talaat NB, Ghoniem AE, Abdelhamid MT, Shawky BT (2015) Effective microorganisms improve growth performance, alter nutrients acquisition and induce compatible solutes accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants subjected to salinity stress. Plant Growth Reg 75:281–295

Vasconcelos MW, Grusak MA, Pinto E, Gomes A, Ferreira H, Balázs B, Centofanti T, Ntatsi G, Savvas D, Karkanis A (2020) The biology of legumes and their agronomic, economic, and social impact. In: The plant family Fabaceae: biology and physiological responses to environmental stresses, pp 3–25

WorldBank (2021) Water in agriculture. Accessed 13 Aug 2023

Yuvaraj M, Pandiyan M, Gayathri P (2020) Role of legumes in improving soil fertility status. In: Legume crops—prospects, production and uses, pp 16–27

Zhang X, Blennow A, Jekle M, Zörb C (2023) Climate–nutrient–crop model: novel insights into grain-based food quality. J Agric Food Chem 71:10228–10237



This research was supported by University of Ciego de Avila (Cuba); Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro (México); Universidad Estatal del Sur de Manabí (Ecuador); and Agricultural Research Council-Tropical and Subtropical Crops (South Africa).

Author Information

Hernández Lázaro
Laboratory for Plant Breeding and Conservation of Genetic Resources, Bioplant Center, University of Ciego de Avila, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

Lorente Gustavo
Laboratory for Plant Breeding and Conservation of Genetic Resources, Bioplant Center, University of Ciego de Avila, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

Companioni Barbarita
Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Coahuila, México

Martínez Julia
Laboratory for Plant Breeding and Conservation of Genetic Resources, Bioplant Center, University of Ciego de Avila, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

Escalante Doris
Laboratory for Plant Breeding and Conservation of Genetic Resources, Bioplant Center, University of Ciego de Avila, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

Zevallos-Bravo Byron E.
Universidad Estatal del Sur de Manabí (UNESUM), Jipijapa, Ecuador

Hajari Elliosha
Plant Improvement, Agricultural Research Council-Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Nelspruit, South Africa

Acosta Yanier
Laboratory for Plant Breeding and Conservation of Genetic Resources, Bioplant Center, University of Ciego de Avila, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

Lorenzo José Carlos
Laboratory for Plant Breeding and Conservation of Genetic Resources, Bioplant Center, University of Ciego de Avila, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba
Lorente Gustavo
Laboratory for Plant Breeding and Conservation of Genetic Resources, Bioplant Center, University of Ciego de Avila, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba