A green approach to synthesize Au nanoplates using Morus indica L. fruit extract and their superior activities in catalysis and surface enhanced Raman scattering

, ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email: contact@vegetosindia.org
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-021-00245-7
First Page: 867
Last Page: 875
Views: 721

Keywords: Green synthesis, Fruit extract, Gold nanoplates, Catalysis, SERS


Currently, the green synthesis of nanoparticles has been considered to be a more environmentally securer and cheaper alternative to chemical and physical methods of production of nanoparticles. Herein, we have described an efficient green method for the synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles using Morus indica L. fruit extract. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV–Vis spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques. UV–Vis spectroscopy results exibit double SPR peaks with a highly intensified longitudinal SPR peak. TEM and FESEM studies reveal the formation of anisotropic Au nanoplates. Reduction and stabilization by the polyphenol-based phytochemicals of the fruit is believed to be responsible for the anisotropic growth. Experimental evidences suggest that the concentration of plant extract to metal ratio plays a key role in the shape determination of the nanoparticles. Interestingly, anisotropic AuNPs (nanoplates) showed very high catalytic activity towards the reduction of p- nitrophenol to p-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4. The rate constant value (k) for the reduction was found to be 0.235 min−1 which is much higher than most of the previous reports of plant-extract derived AuNPs. The developed Au nanoplates showed very good surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties which makes it potentially applicable for biomolecule detection through surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Green synthesis, Fruit extract, Gold nanoplates, Catalysis, SERS

*Pdf Download Buy Printed Copy

(*Only SPR Members can download pdf file; #Open Access;)


Abadeer NS, Murphy CJ (2016) Recent progress in cancer thermal therapy using gold nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 120(9):4691–4716

Adavallan K, Krishnakumar N (2014) Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens. Adv Nat Sci 5(2):025018

Aizpurua J, Hanarp P, Sutherland DS, Käll M, Bryant GW, García de Abajo FJ (2003) Optical properties of gold nanorings. Phys Rev Lett 90(5):057401

Aswathy Aromal S, Philip D (2012) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Trigonella foenum-graecum and its size-dependent catalytic activity. Spectrochim Acta Part A 97:1–5

Balasubramanian S, Kala SMJ, Pushparaj TL (2020) Biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Jasminum auriculatum leaf extract and their catalytic, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 57:101620

Beeram SR, Zamborini FP (2009) Selective attachment of antibodies to the edges of gold nanostructures for enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing. J Am Chem Soc 131(33):11689–11691

Bhainsa KC, D’Souza SF (2006) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Colloids Surf, B 47(2):160–164

Bogireddy NKR, Pal U, Gomez LM, Agarwal V (2018) Size controlled green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Coffea arabica seed extract and their catalytic performance in 4-nitrophenol reduction. RSC Adv 8(44):24819–24826

Chairam S, Konkamdee W, Parakhun R (2017) Starch-supported gold nanoparticles and their use in 4-nitrophenol reduction. J Saudi Chem Soc 21(6):656–663

Chandran SP, Chaudhary M, Pasricha R, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2006) Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using aloevera plant extract. Biotechnol Prog 22(2):577–583

Chu H-C, Kuo C-H, Huang MH (2006) Thermal aqueous solution approach for the synthesis of triangular and hexagonal gold nanoplates with three different size ranges. Inorg Chem 45(2):808–813

D’Souza S, Ogbodu R, Nyokong T (2015) The effects of gold coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanohexagons on the photophysicochemical properties of the low symmetry zinc phthalocyanine. J Mol Struct 1099:551–559

Das A, Kamle M, Bharti A, Kumar P (2019) Nanotechnology and it’s applications in environmental remediation: an overview. Vegetos. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-019-00040-5

Dash SS, Bag BG (2014) Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using renewable Punica granatum juice and study of its catalytic activity. Appl Nanosci 4(1):55–59

Dauthal P, Mukhopadhyay M (2012) Prunus domestica fruit extract-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its catalytic activity for 4-nitrophenol reduction. Ind Eng Chem Res 51(40):13014–13020

Devi JS, Bhimba BV, Ratnam K (2012) In vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using the extract of Gelidiella sp. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 4(4):710–715

Eo HJ, Park JH, Park GH, Lee MH, Lee JR, Koo JS, Jeong JB (2014) Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark. BMC Complement Alternat Med 14(1):200

Francis S, Joseph S, Koshy EP, Mathew B (2017) Green synthesis and characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabrata leaf extract and their environmental applications to dye degradation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(21):17347–17357

Huang Y, Ferhan AR, Dandapat A, Yoon CS, Song JE, Cho EC, Kim D-H (2015) A strategy for the formation of gold-palladium supra-nanoparticles from gold nanoparticles of various shapes and their application to high-performance H2O2 sensing. J Phys Chem C 119(46):26164–26170

Jain S, Hirst DG, O’Sullivan JM (2012) Gold nanoparticles as novel agents for cancer therapy. Br J Radiol 85(1010):101–113

Jana D, Dandapat A, De G (2010) Anisotropic gold nanoparticle doped mesoporous boehmite films and their use as reusable catalysts in electron transfer reactions. Langmuir 26(14):12177–12184

Joseph S, Mathew B (2015) Microwave assisted facile green synthesis of silver and gold nanocatalysts using the leaf extract of Aerva lanata. Spectrochim Acta Part A 136:1371–1379

Kim I, Lee J (2020) Variations in Anthocyanin profiles and antioxidant activity of 12 genotypes of mulberry (Morus spp.) fruits and their changes during processing. Antioxidants 9:3

Kumari P, Meena A (2020) Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles from Lawsoniainermis and its catalytic activities following the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Colloids Surf A 606:125447

Lee YJ, Cha S-H, Lee KJ, Kim YS, Cho S, Park Y (2015) Plant extract (Bupleurum falcatum) as a green factory for biofabrication of gold nanoparticles. Nat Prod Commun 10(9):1593

Lee K-M, Oh T-J, Kim S-H, Kim H-Y, Chung H, Min DS, Auh J-H, Lee HJ, Lee J, Choi H-K (2016) Comprehensive metabolic profiles of mulberry fruit (Morus alba Linnaeus) according to maturation stage. Food Science and Biotechnology 25(4):1035–1041

Lengke M, Southam G (2006) Bioaccumulation of gold by sulfate-reducing bacteria cultured in the presence of gold(I)-thiosulfate complex. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70(14):3646–3661

Lim SH, Ahn E-Y, Park Y (2016a) Green synthesis and catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles synthesized by Artemisia capillaris water extract. Nanoscale Res Lett 11(1):474

Lim SH, Ahn E-Y, Park Y (2016b) Green synthesis and catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles synthesized by Artemisia capillaris water extract. Nanoscale Res Lett 11(1):1–11

Liu H, Yang Q (2011) Feasible synthesis of etched gold nanoplates with catalytic activity and SERS properties. CrystEngComm 13(17):5488–5494

Locatelli E, Monaco I, Comes Franchini M (2015) Surface modifications of gold nanorods for applications in nanomedicine. RSC Adv 5(28):21681–21699

Makarov VV, Love AJ, Sinitsyna OV, Makarova SS, Yaminsky IV, Taliansky ME, Kalinina NO (2014) “Green” nanotechnologies: synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Acta Nat 6(1):35–44

Md Ishak NAI, Kamarudin SK, Timmiati SN (2019) Green synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles via plant extracts: an overview. Mater Res Exp 6(11):112004

Miranda A, Malheiro E, Skiba E, Quaresma P, Carvalho PA, Eaton P, de Castro B, Shelnutt JA, Pereira E (2010) One-pot synthesis of triangular gold nanoplates allowing broad and fine tuning of edge length. Nanoscale 2(10):2209–2216

Mittal AK, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC (2013) Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts. Biotechnol Adv 31(2):346–356

Musa A, Ahmad MB, Hussein MZ, Mohd Izham S, Shameli K, Abubakar Sani H (2016) Synthesis of nanocrystalline cellulose stabilized copper nanoparticles. J Nanomater 2016:7

Natić MM, Dabić DČ, Papetti A, Fotirić Akšić MM, Ognjanov V, Ljubojević M, Tešić ŽL (2015) Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina. North Serbia Food Chem 171:128–136

Oueslati MH, Ben Tahar L, Harrath AH (2020) Synthesis of ultra-small gold nanoparticles by polyphenol extracted from Salvia officinalis and efficiency for catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol and methylene blue. Green Chem Lett Rev 13(1):18–26

Pérez-Juste J, Pastoriza-Santos I, Liz-Marzán LM, Mulvaney P (2005) Gold nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications. Coord Chem Rev 249(17):1870–1901

Rai A, Singh A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2006) Role of halide ions and temperature on the morphology of biologically synthesized gold nanotriangles. Langmuir 22(2):736–741

Rani P, Kumar V, Singh PP, Matharu AS, Zhang W, Kim K-H, Singh J, Rawat M (2020) Highly stable AgNPs prepared via a novel green approach for catalytic and photocatalytic removal of biological and non-biological pollutants. Environ Int 143:105924

Sajanlal PR, Sreeprasad TS, Samal AK, Pradeep T (2011) Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions. Nano Rev. https://doi.org/10.3402/nano.v3402i3400.5883

Sant’Ana AC, Rocha TCR, Santos PS, Zanchet D, Temperini MLA (2009) Size-dependent SERS enhancement of colloidal silver nanoplates: the case of 2-amino-5-nitropyridine. J Raman Spectrosc 40(2):183–190

Scarabelli L, Coronado-Puchau M, Giner-Casares JJ, Langer J, Liz-Marzán LM (2014) Monodisperse gold nanotriangles: size control, large-scale self-assembly, and performance in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. ACS Nano 8(6):5833–5842

Seo YS, Ahn E-Y, Park J, Kim TY, Hong JE, Kim K, Park Y, Park Y (2017) Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol with gold nanoparticles synthesized by caffeic acid. Nanoscale Res Lett 12(1):7

Shams N, Lim HN, Hajian R, Yusof NA, Abdullah J, Sulaiman Y, Ibrahim I, Huang NM (2016) Electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles/ethylenediamine-reduced graphene oxide for trace determination of fenitrothion in water. RSC Adv 6(92):89430–89439

Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2004) Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au core–Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J Colloid Interface Sci 275(2):496–502

Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2005) Controlling the optical properties of lemongrass extract synthesized gold nanotriangles and potential application in infrared-absorbing optical coatings. Chem Mater 17(3):566–572

Singh J, Dutta T, Kim K-H, Rawat M, Samddar P, Kumar P (2018a) ‘Green’ synthesis of metals and their oxide nanoparticles: applications for environmental remediation. J Nanobiotechnol 16(1):84

Singh J, Kukkar P, Sammi H, Rawat M, Singh G, Kukkar D (2019b) Enhanced catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol and congo red dye By silver nanoparticles prepared from Azadirachta indica leaf extract under direct sunlight exposure. Part Sci Technol 37(4):434–443

Singh J, Kumar V, Singh Jolly S, Kim K-H, Rawat M, Kukkar D, Tsang YF (2019a) Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its photocatalytic applications for removal of organic pollutants in water. J Ind Eng Chem 80:247–257

Singh J, Mehta A, Rawat M, Basu S (2018b) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using sun dried tulsi leaves and its catalytic application for 4-nitrophenol reduction. J Environ Chem Eng 6(1):1468–1474

Slocik JM, Naik RR, Stone MO, Wright DW (2005) Viral templates for gold nanoparticle synthesis. J Mater Chem 15(7):749–753

Song JY, Jang H-K, Kim BS (2009b) Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Magnolia kobus and Diopyros kaki leaf extracts. Process Biochem 44(10):1133–1138

Song W, Wang H-J, Bucheli P, Zhang P-F, Wei D-Z, Lu Y-H (2009a) Phytochemical profiles of different mulberry (Morus sp.) species from China. J Agric Food Chem 57(19):9133–9140

Tao J, He D, Tang B, Kong L, Luo Y, Zhao P, Gong W, Peng Z (2015) In situ synthesis of natural rubber latex-supported gold nanoparticles for flexible SERS substrates. RSC Adv 5(61):49168–49174

Tsuji M, Gomi S, Maeda Y, Matsunaga M, Hikino S, Uto K, Tsuji T, Kawazumi H (2012) Rapid transformation from spherical nanoparticles, nanorods, cubes, or bipyramids to triangular prisms of silver with PVP, citrate, and H2O2. Langmuir 28(24):8845–8861

Verma DK, Patel S, Kushwah KS (2020) Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and impact on growth, chlorophyll, yield and phytotoxicity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Vegetos. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-020-00150-5

Yan H, Melosh N (2016) Electronic devices: nanoparticles make salty circuits. Nat Nano 11(7):579–580

Yang T-P, Lee H-J, Ou T-T, Chang Y-J, Wang C-J (2012) Mulberry leaf polyphenol extract induced apoptosis involving regulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/fatty acid synthase in a p53-negative hepatocellular carcinoma cell. J Agric Food Chem 60(27):6891–6898

Yang X, Yang L, Zheng H (2010) Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit in hyperlipidaemia rats. Food Chem Toxicol 48(8):2374–2379

Zhai X, Zhang C, Zhao G, Stoll S, Ren F, Leng X (2017) Antioxidant capacities of the selenium nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan. J Nanobiotechnol 15(1):4

Zhao J, Friedrich B (2017) Synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the chemical reduction methods. Shaker

Zhou X, Xia Z, Tian Z, Ma Y, Qu Y (2015) Ultrathin porous Co3O4 nanoplates as highly efficient oxygen evolution catalysts. J Mater Chem A 3(15):8107–8114

Zhu J, Wang L, Xiao Z, Niu Y (2018) Characterization of the key aroma compounds in mulberry fruits by application of gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC-O), odor activity value (OAV), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame photometric detection (FPD). Food Chem 245:775–785



We acknowledge financial support from DST, Govt. of India for financial assistance through INSPIRE Faculty Award (IFA16-MS81)

Author Information

Bhawana Bisht
Department of Biotechnology, Sir J. C. Bose Technical Campus, Bhimtal, Kumaun University, Nainital, India

Veena Pande
Department of Biotechnology, Sir J. C. Bose Technical Campus, Bhimtal, Kumaun University, Nainital, India

Anirban Dandapat
Department of Biotechnology, Sir J. C. Bose Technical Campus, Bhimtal, Kumaun University, Nainital, India