Agronomic and physiological response of various Japanese plums (Prunus salicina L.) to severe water stress

*Article not assigned to an issue yet

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00544-7
First Page: 0
Last Page: 0
Views: 69

Keywords: n Prunus salicina L., Drought stress tolerance, Vegetative growth, Productive potential, Physiological screening


There are no established studies investigating the impact of drought stress tolerance on plum’s performance (Prunus salicina L.) in Morocco. This study aimed to assess the effect of sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) on the yield and physiological traits of plums during the fruit development period in the Sais plain, northern Morocco. Eleven plum cultivars were planted in an ex-situ collection at the experimental station of the National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) of Morocco, were assessed for two consecutive years for their tolerance to water stress of 50% of crop evapotranspiration ETc (SDI), compared to control trees irrigated at 100% ETc (FI). The measurements included fruit yield, fruit weight, number of leaves per 10 cm shoot, leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal area, stomatal area index, chlorophyll pigment content (Cha and Chb), stomatal conductance and leaf content in cuticular wax and proline. Results showed significant differences among the cultivars in response to water stress for all measured traits. These effects led to significant reductions in production level, vegetative growth, and physiological traits during the two consecutive years. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct main groups within the cultivars studied for drought tolerance.

n                     Prunus salicina L., Drought stress tolerance, Vegetative growth, Productive potential, Physiological screening



Banon S, Fernandez JA, Franco JA, Torrecillas A, Alarcón JJ, Sánchez Blanco MJ (2004) Effects of water stress and night temperature preconditioning on water relations and morphological and anatomical changes of Lotus creticus plants. Sci Hort 101(3):333–342

Bates BC, Kundzewicz Z, Wu S, Palutikof JP (2008) Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, p 210

Bota J, Medrano H, Flexas J (2004) Is photosynthesis limited by decreased rubisco activity and RuBP content under progressive water stress? New Phytol 162(3):671–681

Deeba F, Pandey AK, Ranjan S, Mishra A, Singh R, Sharma YK, Pandey V (2012) Physiological and proteomic responses of cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) to drought stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 53:6–18

Doorenbos J, Pruitt WO (1977) Crop water requirements. FAO irrigation and drainage paper 24. Land and Water Development Division. Rome.144

Elias P (1995) Stomata density and size of apple trees growing in irrigated and non irrigated conditions. Biol Bratislava 50:115–115

FAO (2002) The state of food and agriculture. Agriculture and global public goods ten years after the earth summit. Rome. ISBN 92-5-104762-6

FAO (2020)

Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita DBSMA, Basra SMA(2009) Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. In: Sustainable agriculture, pp 153–188

Galindo A, Calín-Sánchez J, Collado-González S, Ondoño F, Hernández A, Torrecillas, Carbonell-Barrachina AA (2014) Phytochemical and quality attributes of pomegranate fruits for juice consumption as affected by ripening stage and deficit irrigation. J Sci Food Agric 94:2259–2265

Gleizer B, Legave JM, Berthoumieu JF, Mathieu V (2007) Arboriculturists facing climate change. Evolution of floral phenology and the risk of spring frost. Infos-Ctifl 235:37–40

Gholami M, Rahemi M, Kholdebarin B, Rastegar S (2012) Biochemical responses in leaves of four fig cultivars subjected to water stress and recovery. Sci Hort 148:109–117

Gitz DC, Baker JT (2009) Methods for creating stomatal impressions directly onto archivable slides. Agron J 101:232–236

Hamdani A, Hssaini L, Bouda S, Adiba A, Razouk R (2022) Japanese plums behavior under water stress: impact on yield and biochemical traits. Heliyon 8(4):e09278

Hepaksoy S, Bahaulddin A, Kukul Kurttas YS (2015) The effects of irrigation on leaf nutrient content in pomegranate ‘İzmir 1513’. In: III Balkan symposium on fruit growing, vol 1139, pp 581–586

Hubbard KE, Webb AA(2007) Circadian rhythms in stomata: physiological and molecular aspects. In: Rhythms in plants, pp 231–255

Intrigliolo DS, Castel JR (2006) Performance of various water stress indicators for prediction of fruit size response to deficit irrigation in plum. Agricultural Water Management 83:173–180

Jimenez S, Dridi J, Gutiérrez D, Moret D, Irigoyen JJ, Moreno MA, Gogorcena Y (2013) Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in four Prunus rootstocks submitted to drought stress. Tree Physiol 33:1061–1075

Kaidi IL, Messaoudi Z, Messaoudi M, Fagroud A, Bakkali (2018) Evaluation of the effect of irrigation rate on clementine citrus reticulata swingle var. Sidi aissa grafted on macrophylla rootstock in the gharb region. Iosr J Agric Vet Sci (iosr-javs) 11(8):68–76

Krasensky J, Jonak C (2012) Drought, salt, and temperature stress-induced metabolic rearrangements and regulatory networks. J Exp Bot 63:1593–1608

Lampinen BD, Shackel KA, Southwick SM, Olson WH, Dejong TM (2004) Leaf and canopy level photosynthetic responses of French prune (Prunus domestica L. French) to stem water potential based deficit irrigation. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 79:638–644

Le Provost G, Domergue F, Lalanne C, Campos PR, Grosbois A, Bert D, Gion JM (2013) Soil water stress affects both cuticular wax content and cuticle-related gene expression in young saplings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait). BMC plant biology 13:1–12

López-Ortega G, García-Montiel F, Bayo-Canha A, Frutos-Ruiz C, Frutos-Tomás D (2016) Rootstock effects on the growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet cherry cv. ‘Newstar’ in the growing conditions of the Region of Murcia. Sci Hortic 198:326–335

Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158

Mancy A, Hamdy A, Khalifa M, Shawer S (2016) Effect of water stress on the growth, nutritional and biochemical status of two varieties of pomegranate plants. J Plant Product Mansoura Univ 7(12):1321–1329

Marcell LM, Beattie GA (2002) Effect of leaf surface 538 waxes on leaf colonization by Pantoea agglomerans and Clavibacter michiganensis Mol Plant Microbe Interact 15:1236–1244

Matthews MA, Shackel KA (2005) Growth and water transport in fleshy fruit. In: Holbrook NM, Zwieniecki MA (eds) Vascular transport in plants. Elsevier, Boston (McFadyen, Hutton LMR.), pp181–197

Milošević T, Milošević N (2011) Growth, fruit size, yield performance and micronutrient status of plum trees (Prunus domestica L.). Plant Soil Environ 57(12):559–564

Monneveux P, Nemmar M (1986) Contribution to the study of drought resistance in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.): study of the accumulation of proline during the development cycle. Agronomy 6:583–590

Myhre G, Shindell D, Bréon FM, Collins W, Fuglestvedt J, Huang J, Koch D, Lamarque JF, Lee D, Mendoza B, Nakajima T (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. In: Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

Naor A (2004) The interaction of soil- and stem-water potential with crop level, fruit size and stomatal conductance of field-grown ‘Black-Amber’ japanese plum. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 79:273–280

Razouk R (2015) Optimizing deficit irrigation in rosaceous fruits and olive using regulated water restrictions and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Ph.D. Thesis, University Moulay Smail, Morocco, pp 28–30

Razouk R, Ibijbijen J, Kajji A, Karrou M (2013) Response of peach, plum and almond to water restrictions applied during slowdown periods of fruit growth. Am J Plant Sci 4:561–570

Singh VP, Mall SL, Biillor SK (1975) Effect of pH on germination of four common grass species of Ujjain (India). J Range Manag 28:497–498

Sircelj H, Tausz M, Grill D, Batic F (2005) Biochemical responses in leaves of two apple tree cultivars subjected to progressing drought. J Plant Physiol 162:1308–1318

Sudar R, Jurkovi´c Z, Dugali´c K, Tomac I, Jurkovi´c V, Viljevac M (2011) Sorbitol and sugar composition of plum fruit during ripening. In: Proceedings 46th Croatian and 6th international symposium on agriculture, Opatija, Croatia, pp 1067–1071



The authors thank C.D. Khalfi, M. Alghoum and E. Bouichou for assistance with field and laboratory work and M. Lahlou for his help in experimental orchard management and treatment applications.

Author Information

Hamdani Anas
National Agricultural Research Institute, Meknes, Morocco