Endemic tree species in tropical rainforest biodiversity hotspot imperilled by unsustainable exploit in Southwest, Nigeria

*Article not assigned to an issue yet

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email: contact@vegetosindia.org
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00535-8
First Page: 0
Last Page: 0
Views: 301

Keywords: Evenness, Stratum, Cluster, Shannon, Margalef, Biodiversity


This study was carried out in Idanre and Oluwa forest reserves to examine the species richness, structure, composition and diversity. The forest reserves were classified into seven land use/land cover classes to capture its variability. But only two of the landuse classes were considered for this study (Natural and Disturbed forest landuse classes) because they contained the indigenous tree species. Stratified random sampling was adopted for this study where land cover classes were considered as strata. The forest reserves were gridded and each grid area called as “cluster”. Four clusters were selected randomly from each stratum and their coordinates recorded, and then inputted into GPS receiver to locate the first plot. Because every clusters; contained three plots of 35 × 35 m as elbow, north and east plots. The elbow plots were laid southwest corner and 10 m distance was adopted between plots. Then, each plot contained three nested plots covering varied diameter classes. The diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured for all live trees within the plots and their scientific names recorded. Data collected were analysed using R-studio and PAST software for species diversity. It was observed that these forest reserves are endowed with high species diversity indices. The average stems per hectare were 376 stem ha−1 and 467 stem ha−1 for Oluwa and Idanre forest reserve, respectively. It is evident that these forest reserves hold great biodiversity potentials.

Evenness, Stratum, Cluster, Shannon, Margalef, Biodiversity



Adekunle VAJ, Olagoke AO, Akindele SO (2013) Tree species diversity and structure of a Nigerian strict nature reserve. Int Soc Trop Ecol 54(3):275–289

Banerjee A, Bandopadhyay R (2016) Biodiversity hotspot of Bhutan and its sustainability. Curr Sci 110(4):521–527

Bila JM, Mabjaia N (2012) Growth and phytosociology of a forest with Colophospermum mopane, in Mabalane, Gaza Province, Mozambique. Braz for Res 32(72):421–421

Brashears MB, Fajvan MA, Schuler TM (2004) An assessment of canopy stratification and tree species diversity following clearcutting in central Appalachian hardwoods. For Sci 50(1):54–64

Du Preez ML (2014) Southern Africa’s dryland forests, climate change and the water-energy-food security nexus. SAIIA Occassional paper, 189, pp 1–38

Gandiwa P, Chinoitezvi E, Gandiwa E (2013) Structure and composition of woody vegetation in two important bird areas in southern Zimbabwe. J Anim Plant Sci 23(3):813–820

Gonçalves FM, Revermann R, Gomes AL, Aidar MP, Finckh M, Juergens N (2017) Tree species diversity and composition of Miombo woodlands in South-Central Angola: a chronosequence of forest recovery after shifting cultivation. Int J for Res. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6202093

Help CHR, Herman PMJ, Soetaert K (1998) Indices of diversity and evenness. Oceanis 24(4):61–87

Ige PO, Adekunle VAJ (2021) Floristic dynamics of woody tree species in Ora Community Forest, Kwara State, Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Conference of the Forests & Forest Products Society, Held at University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. 26–30 April, 2021, pp 123–130

Kessler M, Kebler PJ, Gradstein SR, Bach K, Schmull M, Pitopang R (2005) Tree diversity in primary forest and different land use systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversity Conserv 14(3):547–560

Lü XT, Yin JX, Tang JW (2010) Structure, tree species diversity and composition of tropical seasonal rainforests in Xishuangbanna, south-west China. J Trop for Sci 22:260–270

Mafupa CJ (2006) Impact of human disturbances in Miombo Woodlands of Igombe River Forest Reserve, Nzega District, Tanzania. MSc Degree Dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania

Margalef R (1982) Perspectives in ecological theory. University of Chicago Press, 111 pp

Neelo J, Teketay D, Kashe K, Masamba W (2015) Stand structure, diversity and regeneration status of woody species in open and exclosed dry woodland sites around Molapo farming areas of the Okavango Delta, Northeastern Botswana. Open J for 5(04):313

Oduntan OO, Soaga JAO, Akinyemi AF, Ojo SO (2013) Human activities, pressure and its threat on forest reserves in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria. J Environ Res Manage 4(5):0260–0267

Ogunjemite BG, Olaniyi OE (2012) The chimpanzees of Oluwa Forest Reserve, southwest Nigeria. Int J Dev Sci 1:823–833

Olugbenga I, Chinyere A, Adisa O, Abel A, Ayodeji O, Yetunde T, Moshood O, Joshua O (2011) An inventory of the geological, biological and cultural resources on Ufe-Oke Hill, Idanre, Southwestern Nigeria. Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. Natural Resources 2:180–190

Rajkumar M, Parthasarathy N (2008) Tree diversity and structure of Andaman giant evergreen forests, India. Taiwania 53(4):356–368

Ravindranath NH, Ostwald M (2008) Carbon inventory methods handbook for greenhouse gas inventory, carbon mitigation and round wood production projects. Advances in Global Change Research, vol 29. Springer, pp 4020–6547

Rawat US, Agarwal NK (2015) Biodiversity: Concept, threats and conservation. Environ Conserv J 16(3):19–28

Small A, Martin TG, Kitching RL, Wong KM (2004) Contribution of tree species to the biodiversity of a 1ha Old World rainforest in Brunei, Borneo. Biodiversity Conserv 13(11):2067–2088

Yang KC, Lin JK, Hsieh CF, Huang CL, Chang YM, Kuan LH, Su JF, Chiu ST (2008) Vegetation pattern and woody species composition of a broad-leaved forest at the upstream basin of Nantzuhsienhsi in mid-southern Taiwan. Taiwania 53(4):325–337



Author Information

Ajayi Ezekiel
Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Nigeria