Evaluation of the potential yield and associated component traits of lowland Boro rice cultivars in Assam, India

*Article not assigned to an issue yet

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email: contact@vegetosindia.org
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00426-y
First Page: 0
Last Page: 0
Views: 121

Keywords: Crop duration, Effective tillers, Grain yield, Harvest index, Phenotyping


The selection and development of potent boro rice, a lowland rice cultivar among its diverse types has been a major concern in Assam. The present study was conducted to find a potent boro rice cultivar based on potential yield and associated component traits, following the standard evaluation system of the International Rice Research Institute. The evaluation was carried out by randomized block design method and found out the potential yield of 117 boro rice cultivars based on their phenotypic yield traits. Bahurupi, PSB 68, Mandhya Vijaya, Bahunipi, and Pathariya were the best performing cultivars, in terms of high grain yield with better performing associated traits. While yield and production of the cultivars have been found to be affected by crop duration, yielding was more in short crop duration (105–135 days). A wide range of effective tillers was also observed among the cultivars. About 33.33% possess below ≥ 10, 30.76% possess 11–20, and 35.89% possess above 20 effective tillers per plant. However, grain yield was highly influenced by associated component traits such as panicle length, spikelets per panicle and panicle weight. The result of the study indicates the significant association of grain yield with its associated component traits and further helps in selecting boro rice cultivars with higher yield for future breeding programmes.

Crop duration, Effective tillers, Grain yield, Harvest index, Phenotyping


Acharjee TK, van Halsema G, Ludwig F, Hellegers P, Supit I (2019) Shifting planting date of Boro rice as a climate change adaptation strategy to reduce water use. Agric syst 168:131–143

Ahmed T, Chetia SK, Chowdhury R, Ali S (2011) Status paper on rice in Assam. Directorate of rice research. Rice State Wise, Hyderabad, pp 1–49

Akinwale MG, Gregorio G, Nwilene F, Akinyele BO, Ogunbayo SA, Odiyi AC (2011) Heritability and correlation coefficient analysis for yield and its components in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Afr J Plant Sci 5(3):207–212

Akter S, Hossain M, Huda A, Islam MR, Jahiruddin M (2014) Evaluation of growth, yield and nutrient content of some Boro rice cultivars. Res Agric Livest Fish 1(1):19–25

Bandyopadhyay S, Reza SK, Dutta DP, Baruah U, Sah KD, Singh SK (2015) Development of integrated land use plan for Upper Brahmaputra Valley under rain-fed ecosystem: A case study in Jorhat district. Assam Agropedol 25(2):181–194

Barah BC (2006) Agricultural development in north-east India challenges and opportunities

Beena R, Kirubakara S, Nithya N, Manickavelu A, Sah RP, Abida PS et al (2021) Association mapping of drought tolerance and agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces. BMC Plant Biol 21(1):1–21

Das S, Sarma D, Kalita P (2015) Morpho-physiological variability in boro rice (Oryza Sativa L.). Bioscan 91:611–619

Donde R, Mohapatra S, Baksh SY, Padhy B, Mukherjee M, Roy S et al (2020) Identification of QTLs for high grain yield and component traits in new plant types of rice. PLoS ONE 15(7):e0227785

Dwivedi N, Maji S, Waseem M, Thakur P, Kumar V, Parida SK, Thakur JK (2019) The Mediator subunit OsMED15a is a transcriptional co-regulator of seed size/weight–modulating genes in rice. Biochim Biophys Acta 1862(10):194432

Feng W, Cheng FM, Zhang GP (2007) Difference in grain yield and quality among tillers in rice genotypes differing in tillering capacity. Rice Sci 14(2):135–140

Goyari P (2005) Flood damages and sustainability of agriculture in Assam. Econ Political wkly 2:2723–2729

Hu J, Huang L, Chen G, Liu H, Zhang Y, Zhang R et al (2021) The elite alleles of OsSPL4 regulate grain size and increase grain yield in rice. Rice 14(1):1–18

IRRI (2013) Standard evaluation system for rice, 5th edn. IRRI, Manila, The Philippines

Jabeen Z, Irshad F, Shah SMA, Hussain N (2018) Genotypic evaluation of different rice varieties for yield and yield related traits. J Rice Res 6(199):2

Kacharabhai PS (2015) Genetic analysis of yield and its components traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Electron J Plant Breed 6(1):19–25

Karki S, Poudel NS, Bhusal G, Simkhada S, Regmi BR, Adhikari B, Poudel S (2018) Growth parameter and yield attributes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by different combination of nitrogen sources. World J Agric Res 6(2):58–64

Kato T (2004) Effect of spikelet removal on the grain filling of Akenohoshi, a rice cultivar with numerous spikelets in a panicle. J Agri Sci 142(2):177–181

Kobata T, Ishi H, Iwasaki H (2017) A reduction in spikelet number and fertility causes yield vulnerability in high-yielding rice. Agron J 109(1):175–184

Lestari AP, Sopandie D, Aswidinnoor H (2015) Panicle length and weight performance of F3 population from local and introduction hybridization of rice varieties. Hayati J Biosci 22(2):87–92

Li X, Yan W, Agrama H, Jia L, Jackson A, Moldenhauer K et al (2012) Unraveling the complex trait of harvest index with association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa L.). PLoS ONE 7(1):e29350

Ma X, Feng F, Wei H, Mei H, Xu K, Chen S, Luo L (2016) Genome-wide association study for plant height and grain yield in rice under contrasting moisture regimes. Front Plant Sci 7:1801

Mandal R (2010) Cropping patterns and risk management in the flood plains of Assam. Econ Polit wkly 2:78–81

Maniruzzaman M, Biswas JC, Hossain MB, Haque MM, Naher UA, Choudhury AK et al (2018) Effect of elevated air temperature and carbon dioxide levels on dry season irrigated rice productivity in Bangladesh. Am J Plant Sci 9(07):1557

Nandini B, Gangappa E, Rajanna MP, Mahadevu P, Ramesh S, Hittalmani PS (2017) Genetic variability analysis for grain yield and its components traits in traditional rice varieties (TRVs). Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 6(8):494–502

Nielsen RL, Thomison PR, Brown GA, Halter AL, Wells J, Wuethrich KL (2002) Delayed planting effects on flowering and grain maturation of dent corn. Agron J 94(3):549–558

Okamura M, Arai-Sanoh Y, Yoshida H, Mukouyama T, Adachi S, Yabe S et al (2018) Characterization of high-yielding rice cultivars with different grain-filling properties to clarify limiting factors for improving grain yield. Field Crops Res 219:139–147

Pande K, Singh S, Singh ON (2006) Stability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties for boro season of eastern India. Indian J Gen Plant Breed 66(3):191–195

Pathak PK, Saud RK, Bora DK, Singha KD, Pathak AK (2000) Status of Boro (summer) rice in Assam: A case study. International Rice Commission Newsletter

Patra BC, Pande K, Samsudeen K (2003) Exploration of boro rice germplasm in Assam. Plant Genet Resour Newsl 2:58–60

Pradhan A, Tanti B (2021) Phenotyping of boro rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars in Assam based on its potential yield and variable component traits, 14 December 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1151795/v1]. at Research Square [

Prasad KR, Krishna KVR, Bhave MHV, Rao LVS (2015) Correlation and path coefficient analysis for yield and yield component traits in boro rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int J Trop Agric 33(2):735–740

Priyanka K, Jaiswal HK, Waza SA, Sravan T (2015) Response of rice seedlings to cold tolerance under boro conditions. SABRAO J Breed Gen 47(2):185–190

Ranawake AL, Amarasinghe UGS, Hewage MJ, Pradeepika NGJ (2014) Effect of days to flowering on plant height and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int J Plant Soil Sci 3(9):1143–1152

Rasid N, Prashnani M, Goswami J, Raju PLN (2019) Crop Damage Assessment in Flood Inundated Area of Morigaon District of Assam. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci

Ratna M, Begum S, Husna A, Dey SR, Hossain MS (2015) Correlation and path coefficients analyses in basmati rice. Bangladesh J Agric Res 40(1):153–161

Rehman M, Tanti B (2021) Screening of boro rice varieties of Assam, India to estimate their potential resistance to cold and heat stresses. Vegetos 34:540–554. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-021-00235-9

Rehman M, Tanti B (2022) Morpho-physiological responses in rice and cold stress induced acclimation involving biochemical and signaling pathways in Boro rice. Vegetos. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-022-00402-6

Rehman M, Jyoti SY, Pradhan AK, Regon P, Tanti B (2021) Characterization of boro rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties of Assam (India) based on their morphological traits. Int J Bot Stud 6(5):1051–1062

Roy SK, Ali MY, Jahan MS, Saha UK, Ahmad-Hamdani MS, Hasan MM, Alam MA (2014) Evaluation of growth and yield attributing characteristics of indigenous boro rice varieties. Life Sci J 11(4):122–126

Shandilya ZM, Tanti B (2019) Hydroponic screening of traditional rice varieties in Assam, India to estimate their potential resistance to Al toxicity under P defciency. Acta Agrobot 72(4):1793. https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.1793

Shandilya ZM, Tanti B (2020) Comparative biochemical, histochemical and expression analysis of SOD gene in a few traditional rice varieties under aluminium toxicity and phosphorous deficiency in Assam, India. Vegetos 33:145–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-019-00092-7

Shandilya ZM, Tanti B (2022) Kolakhar – a traditionally prepared biochar revealed potentiality in ameliorating soil acidity stress in rice. Crop & Pasture Sci. https://doi.org/10.1071/CP21389

Sheehy JE, Dionora MJA, Mitchell PL (2001) Spikelet numbers, sink size and potential yield in rice. Field Crops Res 71(2):77–85

Singh UP (2002) Boro rice in eastern India. In Rice-wheat consortium regional technical coordination committee meeting, pp 10–14

Singh S, Routaray S, Singh UD, Singh RK (2003) Boro rice in Assam: Status and strategy for higher productivity, In RK Singh, MR Hossain, R Thakur, eds, Boro rice, IRRI-India Office, pp 83–97

Singh CS, Singh MOHIT, Singh SK, Singh AK, Singh AK (2015) Growth and yield response of rice cultivars under system of rice intensification and conventional method of rice production system. Ecoscan 9(3–4):1077–1081

Slaton N (2011) Rice production handbook. University of Arkansas, United States Department of Agriculture

Sran RS, Pandey DP (2015) Combining ability and heterosis for yield and its component traits in rice. ORYZA Int J Rice 52(2):105–110

Statistical Handbook of Assam (2014) –Published by Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Assam State/District Wise Area, Production, Price and Value of the Major Crops in Assam from 2003-04 To 2012-13 -Published. by Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Assam

Takai T, Lumanglas P, Simon EV, Arai-Sanoh Y, Asai H, Kobayashi N (2019) Identifying key traits in high-yielding rice cultivars for adaptability to both temperate and tropical environments. Crop J 7(5):685–693

Talukdar KC, Beka BC (2005) Cultivation of summer rice in the flood plains of Assam - An assessment of Economic Potential on marginal and small farms. Agric Econ Res Rev 18:21–38

Tejaswini KLY, Srinivas M, Ravi Kumar BNVSRAL, Khrisnam Raju S, Ramana Rao PV (2016) Correlation and path analysis studies of yield and its component traits in F5 families of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Agric Vet Sci 9(11):80–85

Xing Y, Zhang Q (2010) Genetic and molecular bases of rice yield. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:421–442

Zhang Y, Yu C, Lin J, Liu J, Liu B, Wang J et al (2017) OsMPH1 regulates plant height and improves grain yield in rice. PLoS ONE 12:e0180825

Zheng H, Sun S, Bai L, Jiang S, Ding G, Wang T et al (2022) Identification of candidate genes for panicle length in Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica via genome-wide association study and linkage mapping. Euphytica 218(2):1–12



We highly acknowledge Dr. Rupankar Bhagawati and the members of RRLRRS, Gerua, Assam for helping us with the experimental setup and technical assistance. We also thank Preetom Regon for the technical support in performing the data analysis. We also acknowledge DST-FIST, Govt. of India for the sponsored infrastructural facilities in the Dept. of Botany, Gauhati University.

Author Information

Pradhan Amit Kumar
Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Gauhati, India