Genetic parameters related to gas exchange and production components in cowpea populations under drought

, , , , ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-020-00111-y
First Page: 335
Last Page: 344
Views: 853

Keywords: Grain production, High detection, Population selection, Vigna unguiculata , Water deficiency


Drought is the main abiotic stress in many crops which is affected by the high number of genes involved and intense genotype × environment interactions. However, gas exchange represents a new approach with a high detection efficiency. This study aims to evaluate genetic parameters; determine population performances based on data linked to gas exchange and production components; and determine whether gas exchange is useful for selecting Vigna unguiculata populations that are drought tolerant using six populations from crosses between BR3-Tracuateua (sensitive to drought) and Pingo de ouro-1–2 (drought-tolerant). Our results revealed that production components, mainly grain production, water-use efficiency and carboxylation instantaneous efficiency, and gas exchange presented higher means and variances in the F2 generation. In general, the additive variances were higher than the dominance variances, suggesting intense additive allelic interactions for the evaluated characteristics. Gas exchange is efficient for selecting cowpea populations with tolerance to drought because they present high correlation coefficients with production components, such as between grain production and the carboxylation instantaneous efficiency (0.91), as well as grain production and water-use efficiency (0.89).

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



  1. Abdellatif KF, Absawy SA, Zakaria AM (2012) Drought stress tolerance of Faba bean as studied by morphological traits and seed storage protein pattern. J Plant Stud 1:47–54

  2. Aguiar RS, Moda-Cirino V, Faria RT, Vidal LHI (2008) Evaluation of hydric deficit-tolerant promising bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) line. Semina Ciências Agrárias 29:1–14

  3. Aliyu OM, Makinde BO (2016) Phenotypic analysis of seed yield and yield components in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp). Plant Breed Biotechnol 4:252–261

  4. Aragão RM, Silva EN, Vieira CF, Silveira JAG (2012) High supply of NO3− mitigates salinity effects through an enhancement in the efficiency of photosystem II and CO2 assimilation in Jatropha curcas plants. Acta Physiol Plant 34:2135–2143

  5. Ayo-Vaughan MA, Ariyo OJ, Alake CO (2013) Combining ability and genetic components for pod and seed traits in cowpea lines. Ital J Agron 8:73–78

  6. Barros FR, Anunciação Filho CJ, Rocha MM, Nunes JARN, Silva KJD, Freire Filho FR, Ribeiro VQ (2011) Genetic potential of segregating cowpea progenies regarding inflorescence type. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 46:182–189

  7. Bastos EA, Nascimento SP, Silva EM, Freire Filho FR, Gomide RL (2011) Identification of cowpea genotypes for drought tolerance. Revista Ciência Agronômica 42:100–107

  8. Beebe SE, Rao IM, Blair MW, Acosta-Gallegos JA (2013) Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought. Front Physiol 4:1–20

  9. Blair MW, Galeano CH, Tovar E, Torres MCM, Castrillón AV, Beebe SE, Rao IM (2012) Development of a Mesoamerican intra-genepool genetic map for quantitative trait loci detection in a drought tolerant x susceptible common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cross. Mol Breed 29:71–88

  10. Bralts VF, Kesner C (1983) Drip irrigation field uniformity estimation. Trans Am Soc Agric Eng 26:1369–1374

  11. Burton GW (1951) Quantitative inheritance in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Agron J 43:409–417

  12. Ceolin ACG, Gonçalves-Vidigal MC, Vidigal Filho PS, Kvitschal MV, Gonela A, Scapim CA (2007) Genetic divergence of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) group Carioca using morpho-agronomic traits by multivariate analysis. Hereditas 144:1–9

  13. Clotault J, Peltier D, Soufflet-Freslon V, Briard M, Geoffriau E (2012) Differential selection on carotenoid biosynthesis genes as a function of gene position in the metabolic pathway: a study on the carrot and dicots. PLoS ONE 7:1–13

  14. Coimbra JLM, Guidolin AF, Carvalho FIF (1999) Genetic parameters of grain yield and its components with implications in the indirect selection of black bean genotypes. Ciência Rural 29:1–6

  15. FAO (2019) Food and agriculture organization of the United Nation. In: FAO statistical database, 2019. Accessed 16 Jan 2020

  16. Farias Neto JTD, Resende MDV (2001) Application of the mixed model methodology (reml/blup) in variance components estimation and prediction of genetic values in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 23:320–324

  17. Ferraz RLS, Melo AS, Suassuna JF, Brito MEB, Fernandes PD, Nunes Júnior ES (2012) Gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency in common bean eccotypes grown in a semiarid environment. Agric Res Trop 42:181–188

  18. Franco MC, Cassini STA, Oliveira VR, Tsai SM (2001) Characterization of the genetic diversity of common beans by RAPD markers. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 36:381–385

  19. Freire Filho FR, Chambliss OL, Hunter AG (2002) Crossing potential in the production of persistent green seeds in cowpea using gt and gc genes. Crop Breed Appl Biotechnol 2:205–212

  20. Frey KJ, Horner T (1955) Comparison of actual and predicted grain in barley selection experiments. Agron J 47:186–188

  21. García-Dorado A, Caballero A (2000) On the average coefficient of dominance of deleterious spontaneous mutations. Genetics 155:1991–2001

  22. Garg BK, Kathju S, Burman U (2001) Influence of water stress on water relations, photosynthetic parameters and nitrogen metabolismo of moth bean genotypes. Biol Plant 44:289–292

  23. Gonçalves-Vidigal MC, Mora F, Bignotto TS, Munhoz REF, Souza LD (2008) Heritability of quantitative traits in segregating common bean families using a Bayesian approach. Euphytica 164:551–560

  24. Gravina GA, Martins Filho S, Sediyama CS, Cruz CD (2004) Genetic parameters of soybean resistance to Cercospora sojina. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 39:653–659

  25. Hall AE (2012) Phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought. Front Physiol 3:1–8

  26. Jost E, Ribeiro ND, Maziero SM, Cerutti T, Rosa DP (2009) Genetic effects of the calcium content in beans. Ciência Rural 39:31–37

  27. Kido EA, Barbosa PKA, Ferreira Neto JRC, Pandolfi V, Houllou-Kido LM, Crovella S, Molina C, Kahl G, Benko-Iseppon AM (2011) Identification of plant protein kinases in response to abiotic and biotic stresses using SuperSAGE. Curr Protein Pept Sci 12:643–656

  28. Kouressy M, Traoré S, Vaksmann M, Grum M, Maikano I, Soumaré M, Traoré PS, Bazile D, Dingkuhn M, Sidibé A (2008) Adaptation of Malian sorghums to climate variability. Cahiers Agric 17:95–100

  29. Lana AMQ, Cardoso AA, Cruz CD (2003) Heriditys and correlation between characters of lines of beans obtained in monocropping and intercropping with maize. Ciência Rural 33:1031–1037

  30. Lima JV, Lobato AKS (2017) Brassinosteroids improve photosystem II efficiency, gas exchange, antioxidant enzymes and growth of cowpea plants exposed to water deficit. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 23:59–72

  31. Lobato AKS, Gonçalves-Vidigal MC, Vidigal Filho PS, Ramos VMS, Poletine JP, Bastos CAA (2014) Genetic parameters of grain production and its components in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under drought stress. Aust J Crop Sci 8:1152–1159

  32. Londero PMG, Ribeiro ND, Cargnelutti Filho A, Rodrigues JDA, Antunes IF (2006) Heritability of dietary fiber content and grain yield in common bean populations. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 41:51–58

  33. Lopes ACA, Freire Filho FR, Silva RBQ, Campos FL, Rocha MM (2001) Genetic variability and correlations of agronomic characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 36:515–520

  34. Lopes FCDC, Gomes RLF, Freire Filho FR (2003) Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes. Scientia Agricola 60:315–318

  35. Ma CC, Gao YB, Guo HY, Wang JL (2004) Photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiency of Caragana microphylla, C. intermedia and C. korshinskii. Photosynthetica 42:65–70

  36. Machado CF, Teixeira NJP, Freire Filho FR, Rocha MM, Gomes RLF (2008) Identification of cowpea genotypes for precocity plant architecture and grain yield. Revista Ciência Agronômica 39:114–123

  37. Manggoel W, Uguru MI, Ndam ON, Dasbak MA (2012) Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of some yield components of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] accessions. J Plant Breed Crop Sci 4:80–86

  38. Matos Filho CHA, Gomes RLF, Rocha MM, Freire Filho FR, Lopes ACA (2009) Potential grain yield of cowpea progenies with erect plant type. Ciência Rural 39:348–354

  39. Matos Filho CHA, Gomes RLF, Freire Filho FR, Rocha MM, Lopes ACA, Nunes JAR (2014) Inheritance of traits related to plant architecture in cowpea. Ciência Rural 44:599–604

  40. Mohammed MS, Russom Z, Abdul SD (2009) Inheritance of hairiness and pod shattering, heritability and correlation studies in crosses between cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and its wild (var. pubescens) relative. Euphytica 171:397–407

  41. Molina JC, Moda-Cirino V, Fonseca Júnior NS, Faria RT, Destro D (2001) Response of common bean cultivars and lines to water stress. Crop Breed Appl Biotechnol 1:363–372

  42. Muchero W, Ehlers JD, Close TJ, Roberts PA (2009) Mapping QTL for drought stress-induced premature senescence and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Theor Appl Genet 118:849–863

  43. Muchero W, Ehlers JD, Roberts PA (2010) Restriction site polymorphism-based candidate gene mapping for seedling drought tolerance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Theor Appl Genet 120:509–518

  44. Munõz-Perea CG, Terán H, Allen RG, Wright JL, Westermann DT, Singh SP (2006) Selection for drought resistance in dry bean landraces and cultivars. Crop Sci 46:2111–2120

  45. Oliveira SSCD, Martins CC, Cruz SJS, Silva CJD (2014) Selection of progenies of wild radish germination under high temperatures. Ciência Rural 44:217–222

  46. Pereira TS, Lima MD, Paula LS, Lobato AKS (2016) Tolerance to water deficit in cowpea populations resulting from breeding program: detection by gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Indian J Plant Physiol 21:171–178

  47. Raffi SA, Nath UK (2004) Variability, heritability, genetic advance and relationships of yield and yield contributing characters in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Biol Sci 4:157–159

  48. Ramirez-Vallejo P, Kelly JD (1998) Traits related to drought resistance in common bean. Euphytica 99:127–136

  49. Ribeiro ND, Domingues LS, Zemolin AEM (2014) Evaluation of grain yield components in special grains bean cultivars. Cientifica 42:178–186

  50. Rocha MM, Carvalho KJM, Freire Filho FR, Lopes ACA, Gomes RLF, Sousa IS (2009) Genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 44:270–275

  51. Rodrigues R, Leal NR, Pereira MG (1998) Diallel analysis of six agronomic traits in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Bragantia 57:241–250

  52. Santos MG, Ribeiro RV, Machado EC, Pimentel C (2009) Photosynthetic parameters and leaf water potential of five common bean genotypes under mild water deficit. Biol Plant 53:229–236

  53. Schneider KA, Rosales-Serna R, Ibarra-Perez F, Cazares-Enriquez B, Acosta-Gallegos JA, Ramirez-Vallejo P, Wassimi N, Kelly JD (1997) Improving common bean performance under drought stress. Crop Sci 37:43–50

  54. Shimelis H, Shiringani R (2010) Variance components and heritabilities of yield and agronomic traits among cowpea genotypes. Euphytica 176:383–389

  55. Silva JAL, Neves JA (2011) Production components and their correlations in caupi bean genotypes in rainfed and in irrigated cultivation. Revista Ciência Agronômica 42:702–713

  56. Singh SK, Reddy KR (2011) Regulation of photosynthesis, fluorescence, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under drought. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 105:40–50

  57. Souza GM, Aidar ST, Giaveno CD, Oliveira RF (2003) Drought stability in different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Crop Breed Appl Biotechnol 3:203–208

  58. Souza RP, Machado EC, Silva JAB, Lagôa AMMA, Silveira JAG (2004) Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and some associated metabolic changes in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) during water stress and recovery. Environ Exp Bot 51:45–56

  59. Souza GM, Pincus SM, Monteiro JAF (2005) The complexity-stability hypothesis in plant gas exchange under water deficit. Braz J Plant Physiol 17:363–373

  60. Souza RP, Machado EC, Silveira JAG, Ribeiro RV (2011) Photosynthesis and accumulation of solutes in cowpea plants subjected to salinity. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 46:586–592

  61. St Martin SK, Futi X (2000) Genetic gain in early stages of a soybean breeding program. Crop Sci 40:1559–1564

  62. Thompson R (2008) Estimation of quantitative genetic parameters. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 275:679–686

  63. Timko MP, Rushton PJ, Laudeman TW, Bokowiec MT, Chipumuro E, Cheung F, Chen X (2008) Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea. BMC Genom 9:103–122

  64. Yan B, Duan W, Liu G, Xu H, Wang L, Li S (2013) Response of bean (Vicia faba L.) plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics. PLoS ONE 8:1–7

  65. Zacharisen MH, Brick MA, Fisher AA, Ogg JB, Ehleringer JR (1999) Relationships between productivity and carbon isotope discrimination among dry bean lines and F2 progeny. Euphytica 105:239–250

  66. Zilio M, Coelho MM, Souza CA, Santos JCP, Miquelluti DJ (2011) Contribution of the yield componentes to grain yield of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) langrace genotypes. Revista Ciência Agronômica 42:429–438



This research had financial support from the Fundação Amazônia Paraense de Amparo à Pesquisa (FAPESPA/Brazil), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq/Brazil) and Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA/Brazil) to AKS Lobato. LS Paula, MDR Lima and TS Pereira were supported by undergraduate scholarships from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq/Brazil).

Author Information

Paula Lucélia de Sousa
Núcleo de Pesquisa Vegetal Básica E Aplicada, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. Paragominas, Paragominas, Brazil

Guedes Flávia Raphaela Carvalho Miranda
Núcleo de Pesquisa Vegetal Básica E Aplicada, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. Paragominas, Paragominas, Brazil

Lobato Sacha Manuelly da Silva
Núcleo de Pesquisa Vegetal Básica E Aplicada, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. Paragominas, Paragominas, Brazil

Lima Michael Douglas Roque
Núcleo de Pesquisa Vegetal Básica E Aplicada, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. Paragominas, Paragominas, Brazil

Pereira Talitha Soares
Núcleo de Pesquisa Vegetal Básica E Aplicada, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. Paragominas, Paragominas, Brazil

Lobato Allan Klynger da Silva
Núcleo de Pesquisa Vegetal Básica E Aplicada, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. Paragominas, Paragominas, Brazil