Morphological and anatomical characterization of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench: a highly used medicinal plant in old and new world


Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00376-5
First Page: 985
Last Page: 994
Views: 212

Keywords: Macroscopy, Microscopy, Powder, Fagopyrum , Standardization


Medicinal plants play a key role in health care with about 80% of the world’s population relying on the use of traditional medicine which is predominantly based on plants and their derivatives. The ASU&H system of medicine has developed a high level of societal acceptance in India as well as across the globe due to its efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Many herbal practitioners use unpurified plant extracts as medicine which contains different constituents. Therefore, the standardization of drugs used in these systems becomes a major concern for health authorities. In the ASU&H system, the plant Fagopyrum esculentum Moench is widely used to treat different ailments like skin diseases, visible pulsation of arteries, fluent coryza increase bile secretion, treating fragile capillaries, chilblains and strengthening varicose veins etc. This study aims to investigate the morpho-anatomical characteristics of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Polygonaceae) which is most commonly used in these systems. In the present study, the raw material of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was examined through macro and microscopically followed by powder microscopy, in which under macroscopical study simple observational methods were applied, for microscopic study both qualitative and quantitative microscopy and powder microscopy was performed followed by the fluorescent analysis of powder drug. The macroscopy revealed the presence of dried small pieces of leaves, petiole and stem in raw material. In the microscopical analysis of leaf, petiole and stem showed a few peculiar features viz. large amount of calcium oxalate crystals near the veins; crescent shape outline, ventral side forming a deep groove and 9 + 2 arrangement of vascular bundle in petiole; stem was hollow, tracheary elements with spiral and annular thickenings. The vein islets 28–30 per mm2, vein termination 31–32 per mm2, stomatal index 8.9 (ventral side) and 18.2 (dorsal side) recorded. The morpho-anatomical characters may help in the correct identification and authentication of F. esculentum available in the market at an affordable cost. Although the morpho-anatomical parameters are sufficient diagnostic character to identify the correct plant species, however, if required the analysis by modern sophisticated instruments may be done based on the requirement of the manufacturers.

Macroscopy, Microscopy, Powder, 
              , Standardization

*Pdf Download

(*Only SPR Members can download pdf file; #Open Access;)


Abbasi R, Janjua S, Rehman A, William K, Khan SW (2015) Some preliminary studies on phytochemicals and antioxidant potential of Fagopyrum esculentum cultivated in Chitral. Pak J Anim Plant Sci 25(3):576–579

Al-Snafi AE (2018) Traditional uses of Iraqi medicinal plants. J Pharm 8(8):32–95

Bonafaccia G, Gambelli L, Fabjan N, Kreft I (2003a) Trace elements in flour and bran from common and tartary buckwheat. Food Chem 83(1):1–5

Bonafaccia G, Marocchini M, Kreft I (2003b) Composition and technological properties of the flour and bran from common and tartary buckwheat. Food Chem 80(1):9–15

Chase CR, Pratt R (1949) Fluorescence of powdered vegetable drugs with particular reference to development of a system of identification. J Am Pharma Assoc 38(6):324–331

Christa K, Soral-Śmietana M (2008) Buckwheat grains and buckwheat products—nutritional and prophylactic value of their components—a review. Czech J Food Sci 26(3):153–162

Hagels H (1999) Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Medicinal review. Zbornik Biotehniske Fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Kmetijstvo 73(2): 315–329. Retrieved from

Hammer K (1986) Rudolf MansfeldsVerzeichnislandwirtschaftlicher und gärtnerischerKulturpflanzen (ohneZierpflanzen). In: Schultze-Motel J (ed) Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, p 61

Jacquemart AL, Cawoy V, Kinet JM, Ledent JF, Quinet M (2012) Is buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) still a valuable crop today? Eur J Plant Sci Biotechnol 6(2):1–10

Johansen AD (1940). Plant microtechnique, 1st edn. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, London, pp 16, 80–81

Joshi BD, Paroda RS (1991) Buckwheat in India. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources. Retrieved from Retrieved on March 2020

Kawa JM, Taylor CG, Przybylski R (2003) Buckwheat concentrate reduces serum glucose in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Agric Food Chem 51(25):7287–7291.

Khare CP (2007) Indian medicinal plants—an illustrated dictionary. Springer, Berlin, pp 259–260

Kim SL, Kim SK, Park CH (2004) Introduction and nutritional evaluation of buckwheat sprouts as a new vegetable. Food Res Int 37(4):319–327

Kokoski CJ, Kokoski RJ, Slama FJ (1958) Fluorescence of powdered vegetable drugs under ultraviolet radiation. J Am Pharma Assoc 47(10):715–717

Krkošková B, Mrázová Z (2005) Prophylactic components of buckwheat. Food Res Int 38(5):561–568

Liu CL, Chen YS, Yang JH, Chiang BH (2008) Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts. J Agric Food Chem 56(1):173–178

McClement J, Jackson BP (1971) The structure of buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. J Pharm Pharmacol 23(8):612–620

Schweingruber FH, Borner A, Schulze ED (2011) Atlas of stem anatomy in herbs, shrubs and trees, vol I. Springer, London, pp 335–336

Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava SP, Ramasamy J (2015) Mainstreaming of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy with the health care delivery system in India. J Tradit Complementary Med 5(2):116–118

Tang CH, Peng J, Zhen DW, Chen Z (2009) Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein hydrolysates. Food Chem 115(2):672–678

Tomotake H, Shimaoka I, Kayashita J, Yokoyama F, Nakajoh M, Kato N (2000) A buckwheat protein product suppresses gallstone formation and plasma cholesterol more strongly than soy protein isolate in hamsters. J Nutr 130(7):1670–1674

Trease GE, Evans W (1985) Trease and Evans pharmacognosy. Harcourt Brace & Co, San Diego, pp 735–738

Verma D, Singh S, Arya R, Rajan S, Arya BS, Khurana A, Manchanda RK (2019) Morpho-anatomical observations on homoeopathic plant drug Hygrophila spinosa T. Anderson. Pharmacogn J 11(2):286–291.

William B (2020) Pocket manual of homoeopathic materia medica and repertory. B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd, Noida, p 249



The authors are thankful to Director General, Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, New Delhi; Officer-in-charge, Dr. D.P. Rastogi Central Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Noida; Officer-in-charge Centre for Medicinal Plants Research in Homoeopathy and Ministry of AYUSH for their constant support and cooperation.

Author Information

Singh Shilpi
Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Drug Standardization Department, DDPR Central Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Noida, India
Verma Digvijay
Drug Standardization Unit, Central Council Research for Homeopathy, New Delhi, India