Morphological and anatomical studies of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. fruit and seed (Anacardiaceae) and the factors causing its extinction

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00510-3
First Page: 1366
Last Page: 1376
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Keywords: Brachysclereids, Calcium oxalate crystal, Circinotropous ovule, Conservation, Drupe, Seed viability


Buchanania lanzan is a medicinally useful evergreen tree with edible seeds and fruits. Flowers are yellowish-white, bisexual, pentamerous, complete, and grouped in panicles at the top and bottom of the plant. The annual growth phase of the observed plant lasted about 11 months. The drupe-like fruits were round, indehiscent, and took 80–87 days to mature. The average number of flowers is 580 per inflorescence; however, only 5–25 fruits were produced per inflorescence. The reduced flower to fruit and fruit to seed ratio is one of the major causes of reproductive failure. The anatomical study shows the endocarp of B. lanzan is multilayered, with crystalline exterior cells and sclereids interwoven with a mass of cells in the inner five or six-cell layers. Morphological studies showed exalbuminous and polymorphic seeds with variation in weight. The kernel is pale yellow, with two large plano-convex cotyledons in the embryo. The structural anatomy of B. lanzan fruit and seed has never been studied. The goal of this research is to learn more about fruit and seed biology, as well as the factors responsible for its extinction in the wild. The availability of a hard seed coat, low germination capacity, and a short seed viability time are the factors that have contributed to the extinction of this medicinally important tree species from India’s Western Ghats. The findings are a valuable addition to our understanding of this species and will aid conservationists.

Brachysclereids, Calcium oxalate crystal, Circinotropous ovule, Conservation, Drupe, Seed viability

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We would like to thank our supervisor, Prof. A.K. Bhatnagar of the Department of Botany at the University of Delhi, for his invaluable assistance, ideas, and consistent motivation. We are also grateful to him for providing laboratory space and a pleasant working atmosphere. The authors would like to thank Shyama Prasad Mukherji College and Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College of the University of Delhi in New Delhi, India, for their assistance with manuscript preparation.

Author Information

Bhatnagar Sonal
Department of Environmental Sciences, Shyama Prasad Mukherji College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India