Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of different extracts of Psidium guajava leaves

, ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-020-00151-4
First Page: 750
Last Page: 758
Views: 1902

Keywords: Psidium guajava , Phytochemicals, Solvent, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity


Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) is an important food crop and medicinal plant supporting its traditional uses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of various solvent extracts of leaves of P. guajava. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of terpenoids, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and highest amount of phytocompounds was reported with methanol, ethanol and acetone extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid content was found to be highest in acetone extract (256.32 ± 4.56 mg/g GAE) and n-butanol extract (198.64 ± 1.23 mg/g RE) respectively. The antimicrobial assay revealed that acetone extract (13.5 ± 2.12 mm) exhibit maximum zone of inhibition against P. aeruginosa; while acetone (14 ± 0.71 mm) and ethanol (14.5 ± 2.12 mm) showed maximum zone of inhibition against S. aureus. Chloroform extract (10.2 ± 1.13 mm) showed maximum inhibition to the growth of C. albicans. Guava leaves also possess antioxidant activity which was evaluated in terms of % DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity and was found highest in acetone extract (41%). Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in terms of stimulation index using bovine lymphocytes and highest stimulation index was found with methanol extract (1.432 ± 0.193). This study revealed that acetone extract of guava leaf comprises effective antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity and can be used for therapeutic applications.

                Psidium guajava
              , Phytochemicals, Solvent, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity

*Get Access

(*Only SPR Life Members can get full access.)



  1. Amella M, Bronner C, Briancon F, Haag M, Anton R, Landry Y (1985) Inhibition of mast cell histamine release by flavonoids and bioflavonoids. Planta Med 51:16–20

  2. Arima H, Danno G (2002) Isolation of antimicrobial compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) and their structural elucidation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:1727–1730

  3. Ashraf A, Sarfraz RA, Rashid MA, Mahmood A, Shahid M, Noor N (2016) Chemical composition, antioxidant, antitumor, anticancer and cytotoxic effects of Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Pharmaceut Biol 54(10):1971–1981

  4. Bae H, Jayaprakasha GK, Crosby K, Jifon JL, Patil BS (2012) Influence of extraction solvents on antioxidant activity and the content of bioactive compounds in non-pungent peppers. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 67:120–128

  5. Barbalho SM, Farinazzi-Machado FM, de Alvares GR, Brunnati AC, Otoboni AM, Ottoboni B (2012) Psidium guajava (Guava): a plant of multipurpose medicinal applications. Med Aromat Plants 1(104):2167–2412

  6. Barbour EK, Al Sharif M, Sagherian VK, Habre AN, Talhouk RS, Talhouk SN (2004) Screening of selected indigenous plants of Lebanon for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 93(1):1–7

  7. Barros L, Ferreira MJ, Queiros B, Ferreira ICFR, Baptista P (2007) Total phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in Portuguese wild edible mushrooms and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem 103:413–419

  8. Biswas B, Rogers K, McLaughlin F, Daniels D, Yadav A (2013) Antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of guava (Psidium guajava L.) on two gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Int J Microbiol.

  9. Camarena-Tello JC, Martínez-Flores HE, Garnica-Romo M, Padilla-Ramírez JS, Saavedra-Molina A, Alvarez-Cortes O, Bartolomé-Camacho MC, Rodiles-López JO (2018) Quantification of phenolic compounds and in vitro radical scavenging abilities with leaf extracts from two varieties of Psidium guajava L. Antioxidants 7(3):34

  10. Chaundry PS, Cabrera J, Juliana HR, Varma SD (1983) Inhibition of human lens aldose reductase by flavonoids, sulindac and indomethacin. Biochem Pharmacol 2:1995–1998

  11. Chen HY, Yen GC (2007) Antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of extracts from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves. Food Chem 101(2):686–694

  12. Das AJ (2011) Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort ). J Biol Act Prod from Nat 1(4):216–228

  13. Díaz-de-Cerio E, Verardo V, Gómez-Caravaca AM, Fernández-Gutiérrez A, Segura-Carretero A (2015) Determination of polar compounds in guava leaves infusions and ultrasound aqueous extract by HPLC-ESI-MS. J Chem.

  14. Fernandes MRV, Azzolini AECS, Martinez MLL, Souza CRF, Oliveira WP (2014) Assessment of antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts of Psidium guajava leaves by DPPHand chemiluminescence inhibition in human neutrophils. Biomed Res Int 2014:382891 (Article ID 382891)

  15. Gayathri V, Kiruba D (2014) Preliminary phytochemical analysis of leaf powder extracts of Psidium guajava L. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 6(2):332–334

  16. Gonçalves FA, Neto MA, Bezerra JNS, Macrae A, De SOV (2008) Antibacterial activity of guava, Psidium guajava linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller). Rev Inst Med trop S Paulo 50(1):11–15

  17. Guleria S, Dev K, Khosla PK (2016) Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of fruit and leaves of Terminalia chebula from Himachal Pradesh. IJBPAS 5:1195–1206

  18. Hassan A, Rahman S, Deeba F, Mahmud S (2009) Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts having hepatoprotective effects. J Med Plants Res 3(1):020–23

  19. He Q, Venant N (2004) Antioxidant power of phytochemicals from Psidium guajava leaf. J Zhejiang Univ Sci A 5(6):676–683

  20. Kandil FE, El-Sayed NH, Micheal HN, Ishak MS, Mabry TJ (1997) Flavonoids from Psidium guajava. Asian J Chem 9:871–872

  21. Kaneuchi M, Sasaki M, Tanaka Y, Sakuragi N, Fujimoto S, Dahiya R (2003) Quercetin regulates growth of Ishikawa cells through the suppression of EGF and cyclin D1. Int J Oncol 22:159–164

  22. Khan MIH, Ahmad JA (1985) Pharmacognostic study of Psidiurn guajuva L. J Med Plant Res 23(2):95–103

  23. Khandelwal K (2008) Practical pharmacognosy. Pragati Books Pvt Ltd, pp 149–156

  24. Kumar V, Dev K, Sourirajan A, Khosla PK (2016) Comparative antioxidant potential of bark and leaves of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb) Wight and Arn from Himachal Pradesh. Int J Pharm Phytopharmacol Res 6(1):27–33

  25. Kumar V, Sharma N, Sourirajan A, Khosla PK, Dev K (2018) Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and its fractions of bark and leaves of Terminalia arjuna from north-western Himalayas, India. J Trad Compl Med 8(1):100–106

  26. Kumar R, Sharma N, Rolta R, Lal UR, Sourirajan A, Dev K, Kumar V (2020) Thalictrum foliolosum DC: an unexplored medicinal herb from north western Himalayas with potential against fungal pathogens and scavenger of reactive oxygen species. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 26:101621

  27. Lozoya X, Meckes M, Abou-Zaid M, Tortoriello J, Nozzolillo C, Arnason JT (1994) Calcium-antagonist effect of quercetin and its relation with the spasmolytic properties of Psidium guajava L. Arch Med Res 25:11–15

  28. Middleton E, Drzewieki G (1985) Naturalty occurring flavonoids and human basophil histamine release. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 77:155–157

  29. Morais-Braga MF, Carneiro JN, Machado AJ, Sales DL, dos Santos AT, Boligon AA, Athayde ML, Menezes IR, Souza DS, Costa JG, Coutinho HD (2017) Phenolic composition and medicinal usage of Psidium guajava Linn.: Antifungal activity or inhibition of virulence? Saudi J biological Sci 24(2):302–313

  30. Mosmann T (1983) Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 65(1–2):55–63

  31. Mukhtar HM, Ansari SH, Bhat ZA, Naved T, Singh P (2006) Antidiabetic activity of an ethanol extract obtained from the stem bark of Psidium guajava ( Myrtaceae). Pharmazie 61:725–727

  32. Nair R, Chanda S (2007) In-vitro antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L., Leaf extracts against clinically important pathogenic microbial strains. Braz J Microbiol 38:452–458

  33. Nakamura Y, Ishimitsu S, Tonogai Y (2000) Effects of quercetin and rutin on serum and hepatic lipid concentrations, fecal steroid excretion and serum antioxidant properties. J Health Sci 46:229–240

  34. Nantitanon W, Okonogi S (2012) Comparison of antioxidant activity of compounds isolated from guava leaves and a stability study of the most active compound. Drug Discov Ther 6(1):38–43

  35. Nantitanon W, Yotsawimonwat S, Okonogi S (2010) Factors influencing antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of guava leaf extract. LWT-Food Sci Technol 43(7):1095–1103

  36. Naseer S, Hussain S, Naeem N, Pervaiz M, Rahman M (2018) The phytochemistry and medicinal value of Psidium guajava (guava). Clin Phytosci 4(1):1–8

  37. Norian R, Delirezh N, Azadmehr A (2015) Evaluation of proliferation and cytokines production by mitogen-stimulated bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Vet Res Forum 6(4):265

  38. Ojewole JA (2006) Anti-Inflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extracts in rats and mice. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 28:441–446

  39. Perez C, Paul M, Bazerque P (1990) Antibiotic assay by agar-well diffusion method. Acta Biol Med Exp 15:113–115

  40. Puntawong S, Okonogi S, Pringproa K (2012) In vitro antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava Linn. Leaf extracts against pathogenic bacteria in pigs. Chiang Mai Univ J Nat Sci 11(2):127–134

  41. Rabe T, Van Staden J (1997) Antibacterial activity of South African plants used for medicinal purposes. J Ethnopharmacol 56(1):81–87

  42. Rai PK, Rai NK, Rai AK, Watal G (2007) Role of LIBS in elemental analysis of Psidium guajava responsible for glycemic potential role of LIBS in elemental analysis of Psidium guajava responsible for glycemic potential. Instrum Sci Technol 35:507–522

  43. Roy K, Kamath V, Asad M (2006) Hepatoprotective activity of Psidium guajava L. leaf extract. Indian J Exp Biol 44:305–311

  44. Santhoshkumar T, Rahuman AA, Jayaseelan C, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Kirthi AV, Valayutham K, Thomas J, Venkatesan J, Kim S (2014) Green synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Psidium guajava extract and its antibacterial and antioxidant properties. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 7:968–976

  45. Seo J, Lee S, Elam ML, Johnson SA, Kang J, Arjmandi BH (2014) Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy. Food Sci Nutr 2:174–180

  46. Shinde M, Sawant A, Dhekale P, Sharma A (2018) Effect of different extracts of Psidium guajava leaves on antibacterial and antifungal activity. World J Pharmaceut Res 7(13):523–528

  47. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–178

  48. Smith RM, Siwatibau S (1975) Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of fijian guavas. Phytochem 14(9):2013–2015

  49. Soman S, Rauf AA, Indira M, Rajamanickam C (2010) Antioxidant and Antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaf extract in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65:386–391

  50. Soper FF, Muscoplat CC, Johnson DW (1978) In vitro stimulation of bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes: analysis of variation of lymphocyte blastogenic response in normal dairy cattle. Am J Vet Res 39(6):1039–1042

  51. Sukanya SR, Sinthu K, Shazhni JA, Priya FS (2017) Qualitative phytochemical screening and assessment of antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava and its cytotoxic studies. Asian J Appl Sci Technol 1(9):414–420

  52. Tangpu TV, Yadav AK (2006) Anticestodal efficacy of Psidium guajava against experimental Hymenolepis diminuta infection in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 38:29–32

  53. Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Cisneros-zevallos L, Byrne DH, Pathom N (2005) Hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities of guava fruits. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36:254–257

  54. Uboh FE, Okon IE, Ekong MB (2010) Effect of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves on liver enzymes, histological integrity and hematological indices in rats. Gastroenterol Res 3(1):32

  55. Vijayakumar K, Anand AV, Manikandan R (2015) In vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves. Int J Res Stud Biosci 3(5):145–149

  56. Yasunaka K, Abe F, Nagayama A, Okabe H, Lozada-Pérez L, López-Villafranco E, Muñiz EE, Aguilar A, Reyes-Chilpa R (2005) Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones. J Ethnopharmacol 97(2):293–299

  57. Zhang W, Chen B, Wang C, Zhu Q, Mo Z (2003) Mechanism of quercetin as antidiarrheal agent. Acad J First Med Coll PLA 23:1029–1031

  58. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W (1999) The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 64:555–559



The authors acknowledge Chandigarh Group of Colleges, Landran for providing the infrastructural support.

Author Information

Raj Aarti
Department of Biotechnology, Chandigarh Group of Colleges, Mohali, India

Menon Vikas
Department of Biotechnology, Chandigarh Group of Colleges, Mohali, India

Sharma Nitin
Department of Biotechnology, Chandigarh Group of Colleges, Mohali, India