Some phytochemical and functional properties of Pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) leaf protein concentrates obtained from three locations in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00386-3
First Page: 1063
Last Page: 1068
Views: 1428

Keywords: Leaf protein concentrate, phytochemical properties, Functional properties, Pawpaw leaf, Nigeria


This research was conducted to determine some phytochemicals and functional properties of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) leaf protein concentrates obtained from three locations in Edo State, Nigeria. Pawpaw leaves were obtained from the University of Benin (location A), Oluku (location B) and Ekenwan (location C), and they were processed into leaf protein concentrates in triplicates using heat coagulation method. The resultant pawpaw leaf protein concentrates (PLPC) were analyzed for their phytochemical and functional properties. The results from the phytochemical analysis showed that tannin was absent in PLPC in all three locations. Saponin was high in location A, only present in location C, but absent in location B. Flavonoids and phytates were present in samples from all locations. In contrast, alkaloids and oxalates were absent in all locations. The results from the analysis of functional properties showed that protein solubility was highest in location B, having a value of 0.82 ± 0.07% and lowest in location A, having a value of 0.5 ± 0.02%. Water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity were highest in location B, with values of 1.33 ± 0.15 g/g and 1.9 ± 0 g/g, respectively and lowest in location C, with values of 0.63 ± 0.07 g/g and 1.16 ± 0.38 g/g, respectively. The forming capacity and forming stability were highest in location A, having values of 22.49 ± 1.28% and 98.78 ± 0.62%, respectively and lowest in location B, with values of 8.77 ± 0.31% and 89.39 ± 9.37%, respectively. Fat emulsion capacity was highest in location C (45.32 ± 0.32%) and lowest in location A (37.47 ± 0.43%). Fat emulsion stability for all locations was 100%. The least gelation capacity for locations B and C had the same value of 16%, and that of location A had a value of 14.7%. The results obtained in this study suggest that pawpaw leaf protein concentrate has the potential as an alternative protein source for livestock and man.

#Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)



Agbonghae OA (2016) Physical and chemical properties of leaf protein concentrates of pawpaw (Carica papaya) and its utilization for growing rabbit feeding. M.Sc. Thesis., University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

Agbonghae OA, Nwokoro SO (2019) Yield, proximate and mineral composition of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) leaf protein concentrate, leaf meal and bagasse. Int J Life Sci Res 7(2):246–251

Agbugba IK, Shelaby A (2018) Marketing analysis of selected vegetables in port harcourt metropolis rivers state Nigeria. IOSR-J Agric Veterinary Sci 11(2):26–34

Anjum V, Ansari SH, Naquvi KJ, Arora P, Ahmad A (2013) Development of quality standards of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves. Pharm Lett 5:370–376

AOAC (2012) Official methods of analysis, Association of official analytical chemist 19th edn, Washington D.C., USA

Aravind SM, Wichienchot S, Tsao R, Ramakrishnan S, Chakkaravarthi S (2021) Role of dietary polyphenols on gut microbiota, their metabolites and health benefits. Food Res Int 142:110189

Choy KW, Murugan D, Leong XF, Abas R, Alias A, Mustafa MR (2019) Flavonoids as natural antiinflammatory agents targeting nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) signaling in cardiovascular diseases: a mini review. Front Pharmacol 10:1295

Danielsen M, Nebel C, Dalsgaard TK (2020) Simultaneous determination of Land D-amino acids in proteins: a sensitive method using hydrolysis in deuterated acid and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Foods 9(3):309

Dwivedi MK, Sonter S, Mishra S, Patel K, Singh PK (2020) Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization AOAC. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 17th edn. AOAC international, Washington DC, USA

Aye PA (2012) Effects of processing on the nutritive characteristics, anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves (Iyana Ipaja). Am J Food Nutr 2(4):89–95

Egharevba HO (2019) Chemical Properties of starch and its application in the food industry, Open access peer-reviewed chapter. Accessed from:

Egwue OL, Agbugba IK, Mukaila R (2020) Assessment of rural households food insecurity during COVID-19 pandemic in South-East Nigeria. Int J Res 8(12):182–194

Emmanuel IA, Folasade OO (2011) Chemical composition and functional properties of leaf protein concentrates of Amaranthus hybridus and Telfairia occiddentalis. Agric Biol J N Am 2(3):499–511

Gnanwa MJ, Fagbohoun JB, Ya KC, Blei SH, Kouame LP (2021) Assessment of minerals, vitamins and functional properties of flours from germinated yellow maize (Zea mays L.) seeds from Daloa (Côte D’Ivoire). Int J Food Sci Nutr Eng 11(2):35–42

Jasour MS, Wagner L, Sundekilde UK, Larsen BK, Greco I, Orlien V (2017) A comprehensive approach to assess feather-meal as an alternative protein source in aquafeed. J Agric Food Chem 65(48):10673–10684

Martel J, Ojcius DM, Ko YF, Young JD (2020) Phytochemicals as prebiotics and biological stress inducers. Trends Biochem Sci 45:462–471

NAA (2018). Meteorological Data from Nigeria Airport Authority, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Nissen SH, Schmidt JM, Gregersen S, Hammershøj M, Møller AH, Danielsen M, Stødkilde L, Nebel C, Dalsgaard TK (2021) Increased solubility and functional properties of precipitated Alfalfa protein concentrate subjected to pH shift processes. Food Hydrocolloids 119:1–12

Norahmad NA, Razak MR, Misnan NM, Jelas NH, Sastu UR, Muhammad A (2019) Effect of freeze-dried Carica papaya leaf juice on inflammatory cytokines production during dengue virus infection in AG129 mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 19(44):1–10

Nwokoro SO (2015) From the Known to the Unknown: Some Glimpses and Dances of a Scientist. In: 160th Inaugural Lecture Series of the University of Benin, pp 26–27

Ohizua ER, Adeola AA, Micheal AI (2017) Nutrient composition, functional, and pasting properties of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweet potato flour blends. Food Sci Nutrition 5:750–762

Plamada D, Vodnar DC (2022) Polyphenols—gut microbiota interrelationship: a transition to a new generation of prebiotics. Nutrients 14(1):137

Salehi B, Mishra AP, Nigam M, Sener B, Kilic M, Sharifi-Rad M, Fokou PVT, Martins N, Sharifi-Rad J (2018) Resveratrol: a double-edged sword in health benefits. Biomedicine 6:91

Shubham S, Mishra R, Gautam N, Nepal M, Kashyap N, Dutta K (2019) Phytochemical analysis of papaya leaf extract: screening test. EC Dental Sci 18(3):485–490



Author Information

Enenya Ikenna Gabriel
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria