Tree biomass and carbon stock in subtropical Sal forest of Central Himalaya, India

, ,


Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Website:www.vegetosindia.org
Pub Email: contact@vegetosindia.org
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00503-2
First Page: 1154
Last Page: 1164
Views: 1738


Keywords: Biomass, Diversity, Ecosystem functioning, Species richness, Tree species


Abstract


Tree biomass and species diversity have a key role in regulating proper ecosystem functioning. The present study explored variability among four Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) forest stands of Bhabar belt of Nainital district of Uttarakhand, Central Himalaya within an elevational range of 405–575 m. Quadrat method was used for sampling to assess the phytosociology and allometric regression equations for biomass and carbon stocks. Significant differences were observed among forest stands in terms of structural attributes. The study sites catalogued 26 tree species with highest species richness on site Ranibagh (RB). Tree density ranged in between 620 individuals ha− 1 [site Fatehpur (FP)] and 810 individuals ha− 1 (site RB). The Kaladhungi (KD) site yielded maximum biomass (317.60 Mg ha− 1) followed by site FP (274.05 Mg ha− 1), site RB (248.62 Mg ha− 1) and least (221.46 Mg ha− 1) by site AP (Amritpur). The maximum carbon stock (244.82 Mg C ha− 1) was recorded on site AP, followed by site KD (150.86 Mg C ha− 1), site FP (130.18 Mg C ha− 1) and site RB (116.91 Mg C ha− 1). The maximum biomass and carbon stock (61.09–92.23%) was endowed by dominant tree species (S. robusta). The aboveground components among forest stands contributed 71.84–77.23%, while belowground biomass contributed 26.76–27.24% to the total biomass. The sub-tropical forests across Central Himalayan regions have been modified by biotic interferences that alter the ecosystem structural and functional aspects including plant diversity, nutrient cycling and productive traits. Thus, assessing the variability in phyto-sociological parameters of forests is important for planning well- structured and precise forest management regimes.


Biomass, Diversity, Ecosystem functioning, Species richness, Tree species


*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)

Advertisement

References


Agren GI, Andersson FO (2011) Terrestrial ecosystem ecology: principles and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge


Arunachalam A (2002) Species diversity in two different forest types of Western Ghats, India. Ann For 10:204–213


Awasthi P, Bargali K, Bargali SS, Jhariya MK (2022a) Structure and functioning of Coriaria nepalensis Wall dominated shrublands in degraded hills of Kumaun Himalaya. I. Dry matter dynamics. Land Degrad Dev 33(9):1474–1494. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.4235


Awasthi P, Bargali K, Bargali S, Khatri K, Jhariya M (2022b) Nutrient partitioning and dynamics in Coriaria nepalensis Wall dominated shrublands of degraded hills of Kumaun Himalaya. Front For Glob Change 5:913127. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2022.913127


Baishya R, Barik SK, Upadhaya K (2009) Distribution pattern of aboveground biomass in natural and plantation forests of humid tropics in northeast India. Trop Ecol 50:295–304


Banik B, Deb D, Deb S, Datta BK (2018) Assessment of biomass and carbon stock in Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) forests under two management regimes in Tripura, Northeast India. J For Environ Sci 34(3):209–223. https://doi.org/10.7747/JFES.2018.34.3.209


Bargali SS, Joshi M, Bargali K (1992) Seasonal pattern of total soil respiration in age series of eucalypt plantation and mixed broad-leaved forest in Tarai belt of Kumaun Himalaya. Oecol Mont 2:7–11


Bargali SS, Singh RP, Joshi M (1993) Changes in soil characteristics in eucalypt plantations replacing natural broad- leaved forests. J Veg Sci 4:25–28. https://doi.org/10.2307/3235730


Bargali K, Manral V, Padalia K, Bargali K, Upadhyay VP (2018) Effect of vegetation type and season on microbial biomass carbon in Central Himalayan forest soils, India. Catena 171:125–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2018.07.001


Bargali SS, Padalia K, Bargali K (2019) Effects of tree fostering on soil health and microbial biomass under different land use systems in Central Himalaya. Land Degrad Dev 30(16):1984–1998. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.3394


Barik SK, Mishra SK (2008) Assessment of the contribution of forests to the economy of the north-eastern states of India. Int For Rev 10:349–336. https://doi.org/10.1505/ifor.10.2.349


Barrufol M, Schmid B, Bruelheide H, Chi X, Hector A, Ma K, Michalski S, Tang Z, Niklaus PA (2013) Biodiversity promotes tree growth during succession in subtropical forest. PLoS ONE 8(11):e81246. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081246


Baul TK, Chakraborty A, Nandi R, Mohiuddin M, Kilpelainen A, Sultana T (2021) Effects of tree species diversity and stand structure on carbon stocks of homestead forests in Maheshkhali Island, Southern Bangladesh. Carbon Balance Manag 16:11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13021-021-00175-6


Baumler R (2015) Soils. In: Miehe CAP (ed) Nepal: An introduction to the natural history, ecology and human environment in the himalayas - a companion to the flora of Nepal, 1st edn. The Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh, Publisher, pp 125–134


Behera SK, Sahu N, Mishra AK, Bargali SS, Behera MD, Tuli R (2017) Aboveground biomass and carbon stock assessment in Indian tropical deciduous forest and relationship with stand structural attributes. Ecol Eng 99:513–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.11.046


Champion HG, Seth SK (1968) A revised survey of the forest types of India. Govt. of India publications, New Delhi


Chauhan PS, Negi JDS, Singh L, Manhas RK (2008) Regeneration of Sal forests of Doon Valley. Ann Forestry 16(2):178–182


Clark DB, Clark DA (2000) Landscape-scale variation in forest structure and biomass in a tropical rain forest. For Ecol Manag 137:185–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00327-8


Cottom G, Curtis JT (1956) The use of distance measures in phytosociological sampling. Ecology 35:451–460. https://doi.org/10.2307/1930167


Curtis JT (1959) The vegetation of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, p 657


Curtis JT, McIntosh RP (1950) The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology 31(3):434–455. https://doi.org/10.2307/1931497


Day M, Baldauf C, Rutishauser E, Sunderland TCH (2013) Relationships between tree species diversity and above-ground biomass in Central African rain forests: implications for REDD. Environ Conserv 41:64–72. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892913000295


Devagiri GM, Money S, Singh S, Dadhwal VK, Patil P, Khaple A, Devakumar AS, Hubballi S (2013) Assessment of above ground biomass and carbon pool in different vegetation types of south western part of Karnataka India using spectral modelling. Trop Ecol 54:149–165


Dutta J, Thakur TK (2020) Biomass estimation of natural plantations of Sal, Teak and Pine in new forest FRI Campus Dehradun. Dogo Rangsang Res J 10(6):221–234


Fahey TJ, Woodbury PB, Battles JJ, Goodale CL, Hamburg SP, Ollinger SV, Woodall CW (2010) Forest carbon storage: ecology, management, and policy. Front Ecol Evol 8:245–252. https://doi.org/10.1890/080169


FAO, UNEP (2020) The State of the world’s forests 2020. Forests, biodiversity and people. FAO, Rome. https://doi.org/10.4060/ca8642en


Gairola S, Sharma CM, Ghildiyal SK, Suyal S (2011) Live tree biomass and carbon variation along an altitudinal gradient in moist temperate valley slopes of the Garhwal Himalaya (India). Curr Sci 100(12):1862–1870


Gautam KH, Devoe NN (2006) Ecological and anthropogenic niches of Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) forest and prospects for multiple-product forest management- a review. Forestry 79:81–101. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpi063


Gautam MK, Tripathi AK, Manhas RK (2011) Assessment of critical loads in tropical sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) forests of Doon valley Himalayas, India. Water Air Soil Pollut 218:235–264


Jhariya MK (2017) Vegetation ecology and carbon sequestration potential of shrubs in tropics of Chhattisgarh, India. Environ Monit Assess 189(10):518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6246-2


Jhariya MK, Singh L (2021a) Herbaceous diversity and biomass under different fire regimes in a seasonally dry forest ecosystem. Environ Dev Sustain 23(5):6800–6818. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00892-x


Jhariya MK, Singh L (2021b) Effect of fire severity on soil properties in a seasonally dry forest ecosystem of Central India. Int J Environ Sci Technol 18:3967–3978. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-020-03062-8


Joshi VC, Negi VS, Bisht D, Sundriyal RC, Arya D (2021) Tree biomass and carbon stock assessment of subtropical and temperate forests in the Central Himalaya, India. Trees For People 6:100147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tfp.2021.100147


Karki H, Bargali K, Bargali S (2021) Spatial and temporal trends in soil N-mineralization rates under the agroforestry systems in Bhabhar belt of Kumaun Himalaya, India. Agrofor Syst. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-021-00669-9


Karki H, Bargali K, Bargali SS (2022) Dynamics of fine root and soil nitrogen in Mangifera indica based agroforestry systems in Central Himalaya, India. Land Degrad Dev 5:5


Kaushal S, Baishya R (2021) Stand structure and species diversity regulate biomass carbon stock under major Central Himalayan forest types of India. Ecol Process. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-021-00283-8


Kumar R, Gupta SR, Singh S, Patil P, Dhadwal VK (2011) Spatial distribution of forest biomass using remote sensing and regression models in northern Haryana, India. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 37:37–47


Kushwaha SPS, Nandy S (2012) Species diversity and community structure in Sal (Shorea robusta) forests of two different rainfall regimes in West Bengal, India. Biodivers Conserv 21:1215–1228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0264-8


Li S, Su J, Lang X, Liu W, Ou G (2018) Positive relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass across forest strata in a primary Pinus kesiya forest. Sci Rep 8:2227. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-20165-y


Lodhiyal N, Lodhiyal LS, Pangtey YPS (2002) Structure and function of Shisham forests in central Himalaya, India. Dry matter dynamics. Ann Bot 89:41–54


Lung M, Espira A (2015) The influence of stand variables and human use on biomass and carbon stocks of a transitional African forest: implications for forest carbon projects. For Ecol Manag 351:36–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.04.032


Magnussen S, Reed D (2004) Modelling for estimation and monitoring. FAO-IUFRO, Rome


Magurran AE (1988) Ecological diversity and its managements. University press, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7358-0


Manral V, Bargali K, Bargali SS, Jhariya MK, Padalia K (2022) Relationships between soil and microbial biomass properties and annual fluxof nutrients in Central Himalayan forests, India. Land Degrad Dev 33(12):2014–2025. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.4283


Motlagh MG, Kafaky SB, Mataji A, Akhavan R, Amraei B (2020) An introduction to the distribution of carbon stocks in temperate broadleaf forests of northern Iran. J For Sci 66(2):70–79. https://doi.org/10.17221/149/2019-JFS


Mueller -Dombois D, Ellenberg H (1974) Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York


Ouyang S, Xiang W, Wang X, Zeng Y, Lei P, Deng X, Peng C (2016) Significant effects of biodiversity on forest biomass during the succession of subtropical forest in south China. For Ecol Manag 372:291–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.04.020


Padalia K, Bargali SS, Bargali K, Manral V (2021) Soil microbial biomass phosphorus under different land use systems of Central Himalaya. Trop Ecol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s2965-021-00184-z


Pielou EC (1966) The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. J Theor Biol 13:131–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(66)90013-0


Rabha D (2014) Species composition and structure of Sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. F.) forests along disturbance gradients of Western Assam, Northeast India. Trop Plant Res 1(3):16–21


Raj A, Jhariya MK (2021a) Site quality and vegetation biomass in the tropical Sal mixed deciduous forest of Central India. Landsc Ecol Eng 17:387–399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11355-021-00450-1


Raj A, Jhariya MK (2021b) Carbon storage, flux and mitigation potential of tropical Sal mixed deciduous forest ecosystem in Chhattisgarh, India. J Environ Manag 293(1):112829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112829


Rana BS, Singh SP, Singh RP (1989) Biomass and net primary productivity in Central Himalayan forests along an altitudinal gradient. For Ecol Manag 27:199–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(89)90107-2


Shannon CE, Weaver W (1963) The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, p 117


Sharma CM, Baduni NP, Gairola S, Ghildiyal SK, Suyal S (2010) Tree diversity and carbon stocks of some major forest types of Garhwal Himalaya. India. For Ecol Manag 260(12):2170–2179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.09.014


Shen Y, Yu S, Lian J, Shen H, Cao H, Lu H, Ye W (2016) Tree aboveground carbon storage correlates with environmental gradients and functional diversity in a tropical forest. Sci Rep 6:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep25304


Shukla RP, Pandey SK (2000) Plant diversity and community features of the forested landscape adjacent to foot-hills of Central Himalayas. In: Tiwari SC, Dabral PP (eds) Natural resources, conservation and management for mountain development. International Book Distributors, Dehradun, pp 15–37


Singh S (2018) Understanding the role of slope aspect in shaping the vegetation attributes and soil properties in Montane ecosystems. Trop Ecol 59(3):417–430


Singh SP, Thadani R (2015) Complexities and controversies in Himalayan research: a call for collaboration and rigor for better data. Mt Res Dev 35(4):401–409. https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-15-00045


Singh S, Verma AK (2018) Biomass and carbon stocks in different forest types of Western Himalaya. Trop Ecol 59(4):647–658


Tripathi AK, Shankar U (2014) Patterns of species dominance, diversity and dispersion in ‘Khasi hill sal’ forest ecosystem in northeast India. For Ecosyst 1:23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-014-0023-2


Upadhaya K, Thapa N, Barik SK (2015) Tree diversity and biomass of tropical forests under two management regimes in Garo hills of North-eastern India. Trop Ecol 56:257–268


Upreti SDK, Nayaka S (2005) Shorea robusta-an excellent host tree for lichen growth in India. Curr Sci 89(4):594–595


Verma AK, Garkoti SC (2019) Population structure, soil characteristics and carbon stock of the regenerating banj oak forests in Almora, Central Himalaya. For Sci Technol 15(3):117–127. https://doi.org/10.1080/21580103.2019.1620135


Wu X, Wang X, Tang Z, Shen Z, Zheng C, Xia X, Fang J (2014) The relationship between species richness and biomass changes from boreal to subtropical forests in China. Ecography 38(6):602–613. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.00940


Xu MH, Ma L, Jia YY, Liu M (2017) Integrating the effects of latitude and altitude on the spatial differentiation of plant community diversity in a mountainous ecosystem in China. PLoS ONE 12(4):e0176866. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176866


Singh P (2019) Climate change response on tree phenology of major tree species in the central Himalaya. Diss. Ph. D. Thesis submitted to Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand (India)

 


Acknowledgements


We are thankful to the Head, Department of Botany for providing necessary lab facilities and we are highly grateful to the Divisional Forest Officer (DFO) Forest Department Division, Nainital for providing permission to conduct research work in Sal forests. The authors declare that the study conducted and experiments performed comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed (India). The authors are highly grateful for the constructive comments of the Editor and the Reviewers that improved our manuscript.


Author Information


Pandey Rachita
Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, India
creativemind93@gmail.com
Bargali Surendra Singh
Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, India
surendrakiran@rediffmail.com

Bargali Kiran
Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, India

kiranbargali@yahoo.co.in