Medicinal plants diversity and their uses for Gynecological Disorders of District Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir, India

, , ,

Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-021-00332-9
First Page: 438
Last Page: 452
Views: 442

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Ethno-gynecology, Phytoremedies, Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir


Medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of different gynecological problems. Present study aims to evaluate the medicinal plants used for the treatment of various gynecological problems in Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir. To date, no study is conducted on ethno-gynecology in the study area. This study was carried-out from September 2019 to August 2020 to document ethno-gynecological data about 73 collected plant species through semi-structured questionnaire and face to face interviews and group discussions with the tribal people, traditional healers and midwives. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively through use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and informant consensus factor (ICF). Leaves (29%) were the most frequently used plant part. Decoction (40%) was most preferred preparation mode of medicine. The post-partum disorders had the highest ICF value (87%). The highest FL value (100%) was obtained for Cuscuta reflexa for contraceptive, Centaurea iberica for lactation, and Notholirion thomsonianum as uterine tonic. Foeniculum vulgare, Taraxacum officinale, Cannabis sativa, Artemisia absinthium and Punica granatum have the highest UV and RFC. According to the results of the study we recommend the phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of plants having high UV, RFC and FL values for the discovery of novel drugs for female reproductive healthcare.

Medicinal plants, Ethno-gynecology, Phytoremedies, Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir

*Pdf Download

(*Only SPR Members can download pdf file; #Open Access;)


Adnan M, Tariq A, Mussarat S (2015) Ethnogynaecological Assessment of Medicinal Plants in Pashtun’s Tribal Society. BioMed Res Inter 1–9.

Ahmad KS, Hamid A, Nawaz F (2017) Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous plants in Kel village, Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 13:68

Ahmad M, Sultana S, Fazl-i-Hadi S (2014) An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (district swat-Pakistan). J Ehnobiol Ethnomed 10:36

Akhtar N, Rashid A, Murad W et al (2013) Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9:25

Ali-Shtayeh MS, Jamous RM, Jamous RM (2015) Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and infant healthcare in Palestine. Compl Thera Clini Prac 21:84–93

Amri E, Kisangau DP (2012) Ethnomedicinal study of plants used in villages around Kimboza forest reserve in Morogoro,Tanzania. J Ethnobiol  Ethnomed 8(1)

Aziz MA, Khan AH, Ullah H et al (2018) Traditional phytomedicines for gynecological problems used by tribal communities of Mohmand Agency near the Pak-Afghan border area. Brazilian J Pharmacog 28:503–511

Balamurugan S, Vijayakumar S, Prabhu S et al (2018) Traditional plants used for the treatment of gynaecological disorders in Vedaranyam taluk, South India-An ethnomedicinal survey. J Trad Compl Med 8(2):308–323

Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD (2005) Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci 78(5):431–441

Bhatia H, Sharma YP, Manhas RK, Kumar K (2015) Traditional phytoremedies for the treatment of menstrual disorders in district Udhampur, J&K, India. J Ethnopharmacol 160:202–210

Borokini TI, Ighere DA, Clement M et al (2013) Ethnobiological survey of traditional medicine practice for women’s health in Oyo state. J Med Plants Stud 1:17–29

Bussmann RW, Glenn A (2010) Medicinal plants used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems and female health. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6:30

Cox PA (2000) Will tribal knowledge survive the millennium. Sci 287:44–45

de Boer H, Lamxay V (2009) Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: a comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 5:25

Deciga-Campos M, Rivero-Cry I, Arriaga-Alba M et al (2007) Acute toxicity and mutagenic activity of Mexican plants used in traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 110:334–337

Dutt HC, Bhagat N, Pandita S (2015) Oral traditional knowledge on medicinal plants in jeopardy among Gaddi shepherds in hills of northwestern Himalaya, J&K, India. J Ethnopharmacol 168:337–348

Farnsworth NF (1990) The role of ethnopharmacology in drug development. In: Chadwick DJ, Marsh J (eds) Bioactive Compounds from Plants. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chichester, UK, pp 2–21

Flaster T (1996) Ethnobotanical approaches to the discovery of bioactive compounds. Progress in new crops. In: Proceedings of the third National Symposium., pp. 561-565. ASHS Press, Alexandria

Friedmen J, Yaniv Z, Dafni A, Palewitch D (1986) A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev desert. Israel J Ethnopharmacol 16:275–287

Ghorbani A (2005) Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turkmen Sahra North of Iran (Part1): General results. J Ethnopharmacol 102:58–68

Giday M, Asfaw Z, Woldu Z (2010) Ethnomedicinal study of plants used by Sheko ethnic group of Ethiopia. J Ethnopharmacol 132:75–85

Giday M, Asfaw Z, Woldu Z Medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical study. J  Ethnopharmacol 124:513–521

Giday M, Teklehaymanot T, Animut A, Mekonnen Y (2007) Medicinal plants of the Shinasha, Agew-awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia. J Ethnopharmacol 110(3):516–525

Hassan-Abdallah A, Merito A, Hassan S et al (2013) Medicinal plants and their uses by the people in the region of Randa. Djibouti J Ethnopharmacol 148:8701–8713

Heinrich M, Ankli A, Frei B et al (1998) Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Social Sci Med 47(11):859–1871

Ishtiyak P, Hussain SA (2017) Traditional Use of Medicinal Plants among Tribal Communities of Bangus Valley, Kashmir Himalaya, India. Ethno-Medicine 11(4):318–331

Jain A, Katewa SS, Chaudhary BL, Galav P (2004) Folk herbal medicines used in birth control and sexual diseases by tribals of southern Rajasthan, India. J Ethnopharmacol 90:171–177

Jan HA, Jan S, Bussmann RW et al (2020) Ethnomedicinal survey of the plants used for gynecological disorders by the indigenous community of District Buner, Pakistan. ERA 19:1–18

Jan HA, Jan S, Wali S et al (2021) Ethnomedicinal study of medicinal plants used to cure dental diseases by the indigenous population of district Buner, Pakistan. Indian J Trad Know 20(2):378–389

Jan HA, Wali S, Ahmad L et al (2017) Ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants of Chinglai valley, Buner district. Pakistan Euro J Integ Med 13:64–74

Jeelani SM, Rather GA, Sharma A, Lattoo SK (2017) In perspective: Potential medicinal plant resources of Kashmir Himalayas, their domestication and cultivation for commercial exploitation. J App Res Med Aroma Plants 8:10–25

Kaingu CK, Oduma JA, Kanui TI (2011) Practices of traditional birth attendantsin Machakos District Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol 137:495–502

Kayani S, Ahmad M, Zafar M et al (2014) Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants for respiratory disorders among the inhabitants of Gallies–Abbottabad, Northern Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol 156:47–60

Khan ZS, Khuroo AA, Dar GH (2004) Ethnomedicinal survey of Uri Kashmir Himalaya. Indian J Trad Know 3(4):351–357

Khan ZS, Khuroo AA, Dar GH (2004) Ethnomedicinal survey of Uri, Kashmir Himalaya. Indian J Tradit Knowl 3(4):351–357

Lawal I, Amao A, Lawal K et al (2013) Phytotherapy approachfor the treatment of gynaecological disorder among women in Ido Local Gov-ernment Area of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. J Adva Sci Res 4:41–44

Lone PA, Bhardwaj AK, Shah KW, Tabasum S (2014) Ethnobotanical survey of some threatened medicinal plants of Kashmir Himalaya, India. J Med Plant Res 8(47):1362–1373

Malik AH, Khuroo AA, Dar GH, Khan ZS (2011) Ethnomedicinal uses of some plants in the Kashmir Himalaya. Indian J Trad Know 10(2):362–366

Musa MS, bdelrasool FE, El sheikh EA et al (2011) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Blue Nile State, South-eastern Sudan. J Med Plant Res 5(17):4287–4297

Navchoo IA, Kachroo P (1995) Flora of Pulwama, Kashmir. Bishen Singh and Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun

Phillips O, Gentry AH (1993) The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: i. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique. Eco Bot 47:15–32

Rokaya MB, Münzbergová Z, Timsina B Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from the Humla district of western Nepal. J  Ethnopharmacol 130:485–504

Sadeghia Z, Mahmood A (2014) Ethno-gynecological knowledge of medicinal plants used by Baluch tribes, southeast of Baluchistan, Iran. Brazilian J Pharmacog 24:706–715

Sandhya B, Thomas S, Isabel W, Shenbagarathai R (2006) Ethnomedical plants used by the Valaiyan community of Piranmalai Hills (Reserved Forest), Tamilnadu, India-a pilot study. African J Trad Comp Alter Med 3(1):101–114

Segawa P, Kasenene JM (2007) Medicinal plant diversity and uses in the Sango bay area, Southern Uganda. J Ethnopharmacol 113(3):521–540

Shah A, Bharati KA, Ahmad J et al (2015) New ethnomedicinal claims from Gujjar and Bakerwals tribes of Rajouri and Poonch districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India. J Ethnopharmacol 166:119–128

Shil S, Choudhury MD, Das S (2014) Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by the Reang tribe of Tripura state of India. J Ethnopharmacol 152:135–141

Singh JB, Kachroo P (1994) Forest Flora of Pir Panjal Range: North Western Himalaya. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India (1994)

Singh NP, Singh DK, Uniyal BP (2002) Flora of Jammu & Kashmir: Pteridophytes Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Botanical Survey of India., New Delhi, India

Singh YN, Ikahihifo T, Panuve M, Slatter C (1984) Folk medicine in Tonga. A study on the use of herbal medicine for obstetric and gynecological conditions and disorders. J Ethnopharmacol 12:305–329

Steenkamp V (2003) Traditional herbal remedies used by South African women for gynaecological complaints. J Ethnopharmacol 86:97–108

Tali BA, Khuroo AA, Ganie AH, Nawchoo IA (2019) Diversity, distribution and traditional uses of medicinal plants in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) state of Indian Himalayas. J Herb Med.

Tariq A, Adnan M, Iqbal A et al (2018) Ethnopharmacology and toxicology of Pakistani medicinal plants used to treat gynecological complaints and sexually transmitted infections. South Afr J Bot 114:132–149

Trotter RT, Logan RH (1986) Informants consensus: a new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants. In: Etkin NL (ed) Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet. Redgrave, Bedford Hill., NY, USA, pp 91–112

Ullah M, Khan MU, Mahmood A (2013) An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Wana district south Waziristan agency. Pakistan J Ethnopharmacol 150:918–924

Umair M, Altaf M, Bussmann RW et al (2019) Ethnomedicinal uses of the local flora in Chenab riverine area, Punjab province Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 15:7

Uniyal SK, Singh KN, Jamwal P, Brij L (2006) Traditional use of medicinal plants among the Tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:14

Vitalini S, Iriti M, Puricelli C et al (2013) Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy) an alpine ethnobotanical study. J Ethnopharmacol 145:517–529

Wang LL, Nanakorn W, Fukui K (2003) Food and medicinal plants used for childbirth among Yunnanese Chinese in Northern Thailand. J Ethnobiol 23:209–226

World Heath Organization (WHO) (2002) Fact Sheet No 271. Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy. Geneva, Traditional Medicine and Alternative Medicines

Yadav JP, Kumar S, Siwach P (2006) Folk medicine used in gynecological and other related problems by rural population of Haryana. J Tradit Knowl 5(3):323–326



The authors are thankful to management of Government Model Science College, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India for providing necessary facilities and support to carry out this work. Authors are highly indebted to local population of Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir for sharing their indigenous medicinal plant knowledge without which work would have not been completed. Authors are grateful to Mr. Akhtar H. Malik, Curator KASH Herbarium, University of Kashmir, J&K, for helping in the identification of plant species. Authors are highly thankful to Mr. Harikesh, IIRS, Dehradun, India for providing us the required maps of the study area.

Author Information

Jan Muatasim
Centre of Research for Ethnobotany, Government Model Science College, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India

Mir Tawseef Ahmad
Centre of Research for Ethnobotany, Government Model Science College, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India

Jan Hammad Ahmad
Department of Botany, University of Buner, Swari, Pakistan
Khare Rakesh Kumar
Centre of Research for Ethnobotany, Government Model Science College, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India