Anatomy, micromorphology, physicochemical analysis, and isolation of fungal endophytes from the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae)

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Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
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Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00441-z
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Keywords: Soursop, Fungal endophytes, Proximate analysis, n Colletotrichum siamensen , n Phyllosticta capitalensisn , Nutritional content


Abstract


Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical countries and is also known as the soursop plant due to edible fruits sour and sweet taste. Various parts of A. muricata have been used as traditional medicine in treating multiple diseases. The present investigation deals with the study of pharmacognostic features, proximate analysis, quantitative estimation, mineral content, and nutritional analysis of the A. muricata leaves. The study also extended toward isolating and identifying fungal endophytes from the A. muricata leaves based on their morphological and molecular aspects. Proximate analysis of the leaf powder revealed a swelling index of 1.8 mL, total ash of 9.5%, acid-insoluble ash of 1.05%, water-soluble ash of 2%, and moisture content was 4.65% w/w. The extractive value of ethyl acetate was the highest. Nutrition analysis exhibited 9.35 g/100 g proteins, 22.84 g/100 g fats, 56.20 g/100 g carbohydrates, and 467.76 kcal/100 g energy levels. Quantitative estimation showed a total phenol content of 1.3%, flavonoid content of 2.28%, and total acetogenin content of 0.2%. Mineral content analysis of the leaf revealed the presence of Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Na, K, Fe, Ca, and Mg. Leaf constants analysis unveiled a stomatal number of 325, stomatal index of 16.74%, vein islet number of 44.75/mm2, vein termination number of 95.75/mm2, and palisade ratio of 8.75. A. muricata leaves were identified with two fungal endophytes, i.e., Colletotrichum siamense Prihast.L. Cai and K. D. Hyde NFCCI 4811 and Phyllosticta capitalensis Henn. NFCCI 4812, belonging to the family Glomerellaceae and Phyllostictaceae, respectively.


Soursop, Fungal endophytes, Proximate analysis, n              Colletotrichum siamensen            , n              Phyllosticta capitalensisn            , Nutritional content


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Acknowledgements



Author Information


Andrade Frazer
Department of Pharmacognosy, Goa College of Pharmacy, Goa University, Panaji, India

Ayyanar Muniappan
Department of Botany, A.V.V.M. Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Poondi, India


Gurav Nilambari
Department of Pharmacognosy, PES’s Rajaram and Tarabai Bandekar College of Pharmacy, Goa University, Ponda, India


Kalaskar Mohan
R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, India

Gurav Shailendra
Department of Pharmacognosy, Goa College of Pharmacy, Goa University, Panaji, India
shailendra.gurav@nic.in