Rice is the staple diet for the greater part of the world’s population and there is a regular expanding need of rice production. The plant development and productivity are decreased by numerous factors. Utilizing biotechnological instruments is the most useful alternative to create rice varieties with incredible grain quality, improved productivity and protection from different stresses. Nonetheless, the deficiency of a simple, speedy and competent protocol for embryogenic callus induction and plant recovery is a significant draw back and there is substantial genotype-dependence. The current study explores the impact of plant growth regulators on the callus induction, proliferation and recovery from developed seeds in three rice varieties—SR 1, Jehlum and K 332. Greatest callus induction (82.33 ± 2.51% in SR1, 99.66 ± 0.57% in Jehlum and 93.33 ± 2.88% in K332) was seen in type 2 media containing 3% maltose, 500 mg/l casein hydrolysate, 500 mg/l l-proline, 5 mg/l l-glutamine, 40 mg/l cysteine, 5 mg/l l-asparagine, 100 mg/l ascorbic acid, 4 mg/l AgNO3, 600 mg/l MgCl2 enhanced with 4 g/l gelrite, 0.2 mg/l BAP and 2.5 mg/l 2, 4-D. Most noteworthy recurrence of shoot recovery (75.0 ± 3.0% in SR1, 86.66 ± 2.88% in Jehlum and 88.33 ± 2.88% in K332) was seen in the MS B5 medium containing 3 g/l phytagel enhanced with 4% sucrose, 2.5 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l zeatin, 0.2 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ. The current protocol gives a quick callus induction and recovery system, which could be utilized in effective genetic transformation and for creating genetically altered plants.
We are grateful to SKUAST-K for providing rice seeds. The first author acknowledges CSIR for financial assistance to this work.